Objective—To determine quantitative values for components
of body composition in clinically normal dogs
of various breeds by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
(DEXA) and validate the precision and accuracy
of DEXA technology in dogs.
Animals—103 clinically normal sexually intact adult
Procedure—In a cross-sectional study, Beagles,
Pembroke Welsh Corgis, Golden Retrievers, Great
Danes, Pointers, Rottweilers, and nonpurebred dogs
received total body DEXA scans. For the validation
portion of the study, the results of DEXA scans of 6
dogs were compared with values obtained by chemical
analyses of tissues from euthanatized dogs to
determine the accuracy of this modality in dogs.
Results—Results (coefficient of variation) of the precision
tests ranged from 0.10% for lean tissue to
5.19% for fat tissue, whereas accuracy tests revealed
a difference between percentage bone mineral content
and ash values. Body composition differed by
sex, such as higher lean tissue and bone mineral content
in males within some breeds, and among
breeds. Regardless of body size or weight, the percentage
of body weight that was bone mineral ranged
from 3 to 4.0%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of
this cross-sectional study provide valuable body composition
data for clinically normal adult dogs, which
may have research and clinical applications. (Am J Vet
Objective—To evaluate responses of cats with vaccine-
associated sarcomas to treatment with surgery
and radiotherapy, with or without adjunctive
Animals—76 cats (78 tumors).
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed. Factors
potentially associated with survival time, time to
recurrence, and time to development of metastases
Results—Following excision, electron beam radiation,
and, in some cases, chemotherapy, 32 (41%)
cats experienced recurrence, and 9 (12%) cats developed
metastases. One- and 2-year survival rates
were 86 and 44%, respectively. Median survival time
from onset of disease was 730 days (range, 30 to
2,014 days). Median disease-free interval was 405
days (range, 30 to 925 days). Cats that underwent
only 1 surgery prior to radiotherapy had a lower recurrence
rate than did cats that underwent > 1 surgery
and had a significantly longer disease-free interval.
Survival time and disease-free interval decreased as
time between surgery and the start of radiotherapy
increased. Cats that developed metastases had significantly
shorter survival times and disease-free
intervals than did cats that did not develop metastases.
Castrated male cats had a significantly shorter
survival time than did spayed female cats. Cats with
larger tumors prior to the first surgery had shorter survival
times. Twenty-six cats received chemotherapy in
addition to surgery and radiotherapy. Whether cats
received chemotherapy was not associated with
recurrence rate, metastasis rate, or survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that excision followed by electron beam irradiation
may be beneficial for treatment of cats with vaccine-
associated sarcomas. Extent of excision prior to
radiotherapy did not seem to be associated with
recurrence rate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1582–1589)
Objective—To study the musculoskeletal development
of Great Dane puppies fed various dietary concentrations
of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in
fixed ratio by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
(DEXA), determination of serum insulin-like growth
factor I and parathyroid hormone concentrations,
radiography, and blood chemistry analysis results.
Animals—32 purebred Great Dane puppies from 4 litters.
Procedure—At weaning, puppies were assigned randomly
to 1 of 3 diets. Blood was collected for biochemical
analyses and hormone assays, and radiography
and DEXA were performed through 18 months of
age. Changes in body weight, bone mineral content, fat
tissue weight, lean mass, result of serum biochemical
analyses, hormonal concentrations, and radius lengths
were analyzed through 18 months of age.
Results—Bone mineral content of puppies correlated
positively with Ca and P content of the diets fed.
Significant differences between groups in bone mineral
content, lean mass, and body fat were apparent
early. The disparity among groups increased until 6
months of age and then declined until body composition
was no longer different at 12 months of age.
Accretion rates for skeletal mineral content, fat, and
lean tissue differed from each other and by diet group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ca and P concentrations
in the diet of young Great Dane puppies
are rapidly reflected in the bone mineral content of
the puppies until 5 to 6 months of age, after which
hormonal regulation adjusts absorption and excretion
of these minerals. Appropriate Ca and P concentrations
in diets are important in young puppies < 6
months of age. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1036–1047)
Objective—To determine clinical status and renal and hematopoietic function after kidney donation and identify risks associated with kidney donation in dogs.
Animals—14 dogs that underwent unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation.
Procedures—Records were reviewed retrospectively to collect data regarding prenephrectomy clinicopathologic variables. Dogs were reexamined prospectively at various times after nephrectomy, and pre- and postnephrectomy CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio were compared. Six dogs had postnephrectomy renal volume determined ultrasonographically, and 4 of those dogs also underwent scintigraphic determination of glomerular filtration rate and renal biopsy.
Results—All dogs were clinically normal at the time of reevaluation. There were no significant differences between prenephrectomy and postnephrectomy values for BUN concentration or urine specific gravity. Mean postnephrectomy serum creatinine concentration was significantly greater than prenephrectomy concentration. Mean serum phosphorus concentration was significantly decreased after nephrectomy, and mean Hct, corpuscular volume, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased after nephrectomy. Postnephrectomy renal volume was greatest in dogs < 12 months old at the time of surgery. Mean postnephrectomy glomerular filtration rate was 2.82 ± 1.12 mL/kg/ min (1.28 ± 0.51 mL/lb/min). Renal biopsy specimens obtained during and after nephrectomy were histologically normal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Renal and hematopoietic variables were within reference ranges in dogs examined up to 2.5 years after unilateral nephrectomy. Compensatory renal hypertrophy was greatest in dogs < 1 year of age at donation. Donor age, along with histocompatability, may be an important factor in selecting dogs for kidney donation.