Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for

  • Author or Editor: William P. Thomas x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Zinc acetate was used for the treatment and prophylaxis of hepatic copper toxicosis in 3 Bedlington Terriers and 3 West Highland White Terriers. Two dogs of each breed were treated for 2 years, and 1 of each breed for 1 year. A dosage of 200 mg of elemental zinc per day was required to achieve therapeutic objectives related to copper, which included a doubling of plasma zinc concentration to 200 μg/dl and a suppression of oral 64 copper absorption. The dosage was later reduced to 50 to 100 mg/day to avoid an excessive increase in plasma zinc concentration. The preliminary clinical results were good. Three dogs had mild to moderate active liver disease and high liver copper concentrations at the time of initiation of zinc administration. Biopsy of the liver 2 years later revealed a reduction in hepatitis and copper concentrations. One other dog without active hepatitis also had a reduction in hepatic copper concentrations over a 2-year period. All 6 dogs have done well clinically. On the basis of these findings, we believe zinc acetate to be an effective and nontoxic treatment for copper toxicosis in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize a genetic component to cricopharyngeal dysfunction (CD) in Golden Retrievers.

Animals—117 dogs.

Procedure—The CD phenotype was determined by videofluoroscopy, and dogs were classified as affected if the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) did not open, if there were morphologic abnormalities of the UES, or if opening of the UES was delayed for ≥ 6 videofluoroscopic frames (0.2 seconds) after closure of the epiglottis. All survey radiographic and videofluoroscopic studies were reviewed by the same radiologist.

Results—Of the 117 dogs (47 males and 70 females) with a CD phenotype determined via videofluoroscopy, 21 dogs (18.0%) had abnormalities of the UES (affected). Of these 21 dogs, 9 were males (19.1% of all males) and 12 were females (17.1% of all females). The heritability of CD in a threshold model was estimated as 0.61, which established that CD could be passed from parent to offspring. Results of complex segregation analysis suggested that a single recessive allele of large effect contributed to the expression of this disease in Golden Retrievers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The determination that CD is inherited in Golden Retrievers is an important step in providing information for veterinarians attending dogs with this disorder. Breeders also require this information to make informed breeding decisions. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:344–349)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—5 dogs, 1 goat, and 1 horse underwent percutaneous endovascular retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies between 2002 and 2007.

Clinical Findings—Foreign bodies were IV catheters in 4 dogs, the horse, and the goat and a piece of a balloon valvuloplasty catheter in 1 dog. Location of the foreign bodies included the main pulmonary artery (1 dog), a branch of a pulmonary artery (4 dogs), the right ventricle (the goat), and a jugular vein (the horse).

Treatment and Outcome—The procedure of percutaneous endovascular retrieval of the foreign body was easy to perform in all instances. One dog was euthanized 41 days after retrieval because of worsening of another disease process, and 1 dog had abnormal neurologic signs secondary to a brain mass. All other animals were clinically normal during the follow-up period (follow-up duration, 3 to 57 months). None of the animals developed long-term complications secondary to the foreign body retrieval procedure.

Clinical Relevance—Intravascular foreign bodies that result from catheters or devices used during minimally invasive techniques are rare but may cause substantial morbidity. Percutaneous endovascular retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies was easily and safely performed in the 7 animals reported here. Use of percutaneous endovascular retrieval techniques should be considered for treatment of animals with intravascular foreign bodies because morbidity can be substantially decreased; however, proper selection of patients for the procedure is necessary.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Red blood cell populations separated by density centrifugation were compared in a dynamic assay of osmotic stress. Red blood cells from Beagles genotypically normal and nonanemic (nonaffected), Beagles with inherited hemolytic anemia (anemic), and Beagles presumed to be carriers of the anemia trait (trait carriers) were examined for rate and extent of swelling after exposure to the ionophore A23187 in a medium containing calcium and potassium chloride. Comparisons were made between rbc populations separated on the basis of density. Significant differences were observed in the rates of cell swelling in rbc populations separated by density between nonaffected and anemic Beagles. The response of rbc from Beagles presumed to carry the anemia trait was similar to that of rbc from nonaffected dogs. One phenotypic expression of this inherited abnormality of rbc in Beagles was an accelerated rate of rbc swelling under osmotic stress, and this swelling response diminished with increasing rbc density.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Between October 1986 and September 1988, 37 cats with moderate to severe idiopathic myocardial failure (dilated cardiomyopathy) were evaluated prospectively. Low plasma taurine concentration and diet history including foods that can cause taurine deficiency were documented in most of the cats. Comparison with a retrospectively studied population of 33 cats with dilated cardiomyopathy diagnosed between 1980 and 1986 demonstrated that the clinical and historical findings in the 33 retrospectively studied cats were similar to those in the 37 cats studied prospectively. Clinical findings in the 2 groups were also similar to findings previously reported in the literature. Because clinical findings and diet history were similar in the prospective and retrospective groups, we believe that many cats in the latter group had diet-induced taurine deficiency. These findings support the conclusion that most cases of dilated cardiomyopathy in cats have a common etiopathogenesis related to diet and as such are preventable.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Between October 1986 and September 1988, 37 cats with moderate to severe idiopathic myocardial failure (dilated cardiomyopathy) were evaluated. Clinical management of these cats was similar to that described in the literature, except that it also included administration of 500 or 1,000 mg of the sulfur amino acid, taurine per day.

Early death (death within the first 30 days of treatment) occurred in 14 (38%) cats. One cat was lost to follow-up evaluation. Twenty-two cats (59%) had marked clinical and echocardiographic improvement and survived longer than 240 days. In all but 1 cat, the observed improvement in echocardiographic measurements persisted. Hypothermia and thromboembolism were positively associated with an increased risk of early death. Administration of digoxin did not significantly affect survival.

All 22 cats that survived > 30 days remained clinically stable despite withdrawal of all medications except taurine. Administration of taurine was eventually discontinued in 20 of the 22 cats and adequate taurine intake was thereafter provided for in the food.

The clinical response and 1-year survival rate of 58% (21 of 36 cats with a known outcome) in the taurine-treated group represents a marked improvement, compared with a 1-year survival rate of 13% (4 of 31 cats with a known outcome) in a retrospectively evaluated population of 33 cats with dilated cardiomyopathy.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the ability of orally administered aspirin to mitigate 3-methylindole (3MI)-induced respiratory tract disease and reduced rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—244 beef cattle.

Procedure—In a masked, randomized, controlled field trial, calves were untreated (controls) or received a single orally administered dose of aspirin (31.2 g) on entry into a feedlot. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured on days 0, 3, and 6. Rumen 3MI concentration was measured on day 3. Cattle were observed daily for clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Lungs were evaluated at slaughter for gross pulmonary lesions.

Results—Mean daily gain (MDG) in cattle treated with aspirin, compared with control cattle, was 0.06 kg greater in the backgrounding unit and 0.03 kg greater for the overall feeding period. Neither serum nor rumen 3MI concentrations appeared to modify this effect. Cattle treated with aspirin were more likely to be treated for respiratory tract disease. Mortality rate, gross pulmonary lesions, and serum and rumen 3MI concentrations were similar between groups. Increased rumen 3MI concentration was associated with a small difference in risk of lung fibrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cattle given a single orally administered dose of aspirin on feedlot entry had higher MDG in the backgrounding unit and for the overall feeding period, but this finding could not be attributed to mitigation of effects of 3MI. This may have been influenced by low peak 3MI production and slow rates of gain. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1209–1213)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether immunity against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) mitigates the effects of 3-methylindole (3MI) on occurrence of bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) and rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—254 mixed-breed beef cattle.

Procedure—Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at the time of arrival at the feedlot. One group was vaccinated with an inactivated BRSV vaccine, another was vaccinated with a modified-live BRSV vaccine, and the third was maintained as unvaccinated control cattle. On days 0 and 28, serum BRSV antibody concentrations were measured, using serum neutralizing and ELISA techniques. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured at feedlot arrival and 3 days later. Cattle were monitored for development of BRD. At slaughter, lungs were evaluated grossly for chronic lesions.

Results—Higher serum 3MI concentrations early in the feeding period were associated with lower mean daily gain. Control cattle were more likely to be treated for BRD after day 3, compared with cattle vaccinated with the modified-live BRSV vaccine. Humoral immunity against BRSV did not appear to modify the effect of 3MI on development of BRD or mean daily gain.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that abrogating the effects of 3MI and BRSV infection may improve the health and growth performance of feedlot cattle. However, in this study, immunity against BRSV did not appear to protect against the potential synergism between 3MI and BRSV infection, possibly because of the slow rates of gain of cattle included in the study or timing of sample collection. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1309–1314)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research