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SUMMARY

Mycobacterial culture was performed on colostrum, milk, and feces from 126 clinically normal cows of a single herd with high prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection. Thirty-six (28.6%) cows were determined to be shedding the organism in the feces. Of the 36 fecal culture-positive cows, M paratuberculosis was isolated from the colostrum of 8 (22.2%) and from the milk of 3 (8.3%). Cows that were heavy fecal shedders were more likely to shed the organism in the colostrum than were light fecal shedders.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine whether a commercially available agar gel immunodiffusion test approved for detecting antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cattle could be used for sheep.

Design—

Experimental trial.

Sample Population—

Serum samples from 27 sheep confirmed to have paratuberculosis by means of acid-fast staining of smears of ileal mucosa, histologic examination of tissues, or bacteriologic culture; 7 sheep with clinical signs of paratuberculosis; and 55 sheep from 5 uninfected flocks.

Procedure—

Serum samples were tested concurrently with the commercially available test and with a previously validated agar gel immunodiffusion test. Multiple samples collected from 13 infected sheep over a period of 6 years were also tested so that each test's ability to detect onset of seropositivity could be compared.

Results—

For both tests, results for samples from all 55 uninfected sheep were negative, results for samples from 32 of the 34 sheep with paratuberculosis were positive, and results for the remaining 2 sheep with paratuberculosis were negative. Results of both tests were in agreement for 50 of 54 samples obtained from 13 infected sheep over time. The 4 samples for which results of the 2 tests disagreed were the fourth, eighth, and ninth of 10 samples from 1 sheep and the first of 6 samples from a second sheep. For all 4 samples, the commercially available assay yielded a weak-positive result, but the previously described test yielded a negative result.

Clinical Implications—

The commercially available agar gel immunodiffusion test approved for use in cattle may be useful in the differential diagnosis of paratuberculosis in sheep. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:401-403)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seven mature dairy cows from 6 herds were obtained with history, clinical signs of disease, and laboratory findings suggestive of advanced paratuberculosis. A surgically implanted collection chamber was used to obtain peripheral tissue fluid. Blood, mammary gland flush fluid, and collection chamber flush fluid (ccff) samples were obtained 6 times over a 2-week period from each cow. Mononuclear cell-rich portions of these fluids obtained by gradient centrifugation were submitted for bacteriologic culture of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and for total and differential cell counts.

Bacteriologic culture of feces for M paratuberculosis and complete necropsy performed on each cow at the conclusion of the study confirmed the diagnosis of paratuberculosis. Numbers of tissue macrophages obtained from ccff samples were lower than expected. Mean (± SD) differential count of tissue macrophages collected from ccff was 65.57 (± 23.39). Mean calculated tissue macrophages (total cell count × differential count) collected from ccff samples was 623.1 (±784.55) cells/μl. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated from 1 of 42 (2.4%) collections of mononuclear cell-rich portions of plasma and from 2 of 42 (4.8%) ccff samples. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was not isolated from any collections of mammary gland flush fluid. The collection and processing techniques used in this study did not enhance detection of M paratuberculosis infection in cows with advanced paratuberculosis, beyond that of ileocecal lymph node biopsy or fecal culture.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether Mycobacterium paratuberculosis could survive in colostrum after pasteurization. Additionally, this study investigated the effect pasteurization had on IgG concentration in colostrum.

Animals

Colostrum samples were collected from cattle (beef and dairy) owned by the state of Ohio.

Procedure

Colostrum was divided into aliquots and inoculated with variable concentrations of M paratuberculosis (ATCC No. 19698: 104, 103, and 102 colony-forming units/ml). Half the samples at each concentration were subjected to pasteurization temperatures (63 C) for 30 minutes and the remainder were kept at approximately 20 to 23 C. All samples were incubated (Herrold's egg yolk medium with and without mycobactin J) and observed for growth during the next 16 weeks. Additionally, the IgG concentration of colostrum was determined by radioimmunoassay before and after pasteurization. Samples that coagulated at pasteurization temperatures were mechanically resuspended before measurement of IgG concentration.

Results

Growth of M paratuberculosis was retarded but not eliminated by pasteurization. Growth was observed in all unpasteurized samples incubated on Herrold's egg yolk medium with mycobactin J but in only 2 of 18 pasteurized samples similarly cultured. Growth from pasteurized samples appeared 5 to 9 weeks after growth was observed from nonpasteurized samples.

Mean colostral IgG concentration was 44.4 g/L in nonpasteurized samples and 37.2 g/L in pasteurized sample, a decrease of 12.3%. High-quality colostrum (> 48 g of IgG/L) had a significantly greater loss of IgG concentration than did colostrum of lesser quality (P = 0.002).

Conclusions

Pasteurization lessened, but did not eliminate, growth of M paratuberculosis from experimentally inoculated colostrum samples. Pasteurization resulted in a significant decrease in colostral IgG concentration but not to an unmanageable level that would preclude the colostrum's use for passive transfer of immunity.

Clinical Relevance

Colostrum is macrophage rich and may serve as a source of M paratuberculosis infection to calves. Pasteurization of colostrum may lessen the risk of infection, but will not totally eliminate M paratuberculosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1580–1585)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the ability of orally administered aspirin to mitigate 3-methylindole (3MI)-induced respiratory tract disease and reduced rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—244 beef cattle.

Procedure—In a masked, randomized, controlled field trial, calves were untreated (controls) or received a single orally administered dose of aspirin (31.2 g) on entry into a feedlot. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured on days 0, 3, and 6. Rumen 3MI concentration was measured on day 3. Cattle were observed daily for clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Lungs were evaluated at slaughter for gross pulmonary lesions.

Results—Mean daily gain (MDG) in cattle treated with aspirin, compared with control cattle, was 0.06 kg greater in the backgrounding unit and 0.03 kg greater for the overall feeding period. Neither serum nor rumen 3MI concentrations appeared to modify this effect. Cattle treated with aspirin were more likely to be treated for respiratory tract disease. Mortality rate, gross pulmonary lesions, and serum and rumen 3MI concentrations were similar between groups. Increased rumen 3MI concentration was associated with a small difference in risk of lung fibrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cattle given a single orally administered dose of aspirin on feedlot entry had higher MDG in the backgrounding unit and for the overall feeding period, but this finding could not be attributed to mitigation of effects of 3MI. This may have been influenced by low peak 3MI production and slow rates of gain. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1209–1213)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether immunity against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) mitigates the effects of 3-methylindole (3MI) on occurrence of bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) and rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—254 mixed-breed beef cattle.

Procedure—Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at the time of arrival at the feedlot. One group was vaccinated with an inactivated BRSV vaccine, another was vaccinated with a modified-live BRSV vaccine, and the third was maintained as unvaccinated control cattle. On days 0 and 28, serum BRSV antibody concentrations were measured, using serum neutralizing and ELISA techniques. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured at feedlot arrival and 3 days later. Cattle were monitored for development of BRD. At slaughter, lungs were evaluated grossly for chronic lesions.

Results—Higher serum 3MI concentrations early in the feeding period were associated with lower mean daily gain. Control cattle were more likely to be treated for BRD after day 3, compared with cattle vaccinated with the modified-live BRSV vaccine. Humoral immunity against BRSV did not appear to modify the effect of 3MI on development of BRD or mean daily gain.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that abrogating the effects of 3MI and BRSV infection may improve the health and growth performance of feedlot cattle. However, in this study, immunity against BRSV did not appear to protect against the potential synergism between 3MI and BRSV infection, possibly because of the slow rates of gain of cattle included in the study or timing of sample collection. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1309–1314)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of a new ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Design—Cross-sectional observational survey.

Sample Population—Serum samples from 590 cattle that were infected with M avium subsp paratuberculosis and 723 cattle that were not infected.

Procedure—Serum samples were tested by use of an ELISA for antibodies against M avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Results—Sensitivity of the test varied from 15.4 to 88.1%, depending on the clinical stage and bacterial shedding status of the cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results obtained with use of the new ELISA agreed favorably with those of a previous ELISA. Practitioners must be aware of variability in the sensitivity of the test, which depends on the clinical and shedding status of the cattle, because this may affect interpretation of test results. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1163–1166)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Over a period of 3 summers, 21 colostrum-fed Holstein bull calves, 1 to 3 days old, were assigned to 7 replicates, each consisting of 3 calves. Within each replicate of 3 calves, 2 were selected at random, to be given 100,000 to 146,000 sporulated coccidia oocysts (principally Eimeria bovis) orally 60 hours after arrival at the college research farm. On the thirteenth day after coccidia inoculation, 1 of the 2 calves that had been given coccidia and the third calf that had not been inoculated, were given coronavirus by intranasal and oral routes. Calves were observed daily, and consistency of feces was scored visually. Nasal swab specimens for indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing for coronavirus and fecal samples for oocyst determination were obtained approximately every third day. Of 7 calves that were given only coronavirus, 3 developed diarrhea of short duration. Of 7 calves that were given only coccidia oocysts, 6 developed diarrhea. All 7 calves inoculated initially with coccidia and subsequently with coronavirus developed diarrhea. For 5 of 7 replicates, calves that were given coccidia and coronavirus developed diarrhea first. When overall severity, measured by fecal score and by blood in the feces, was compared, calves inoculated with coccidia followed by coronavirus were more severely affected (P < 0.05) than were calves that were given only coronavirus. Calves that were given only coccidia oocysts appeared more severely affected than calves that were given only coronavirus, but differences were not significant. Calves that were given either coccidia alone, or coccidia followed by coronavirus, had more severe lesions of mucosal degeneration/epithelial necrosis and inflammation (P < 0.05) than did calves that were given only coronavirus. Lesions, however, were generally most severe in calves that were given coccidia and coronavirus. In 4 calves, fibrinopurulent typhlitis and/or colitis were observed; 3 of these observations were made in calves that were given coccidia followed by coronavirus. These observations indicate that, although coronavirus infection in young calves is common and may be mild in calves given adequate colostrum, when combined with coccidia (principally E bovis) infection, resultant clinical signs of disease and lesions may be more severe than those associated with infection attributable to either coronavirus or coccidia alone.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research