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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of diazepam administered per rectum via compounded (ie, not commercially available) suppositories and determine whether a dose of 2 mg/kg in this formulation would result in plasma concentrations shown to be effective for control of status epilepticus or cluster seizures (ie, 150 to 300 ng/mL) in dogs within a clinically useful interval (10 to 15 minutes).

Animals—6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 3 dogs each in a crossover-design study. Diazepam (2 mg/kg) was administered IV or via suppository per rectum, and blood samples were collected at predetermined time points. Following a 6- or 7-day washout period, each group received the alternate treatment. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam were analyzed via reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam exceeded the targeted range ≤ 3 minutes after IV administration in all dogs. After suppository administration, targeted concentrations of diazepam were not detected in any dogs, and targeted concentrations of nordiazepam were detected after 90 minutes (n = 2 dogs) or 120 minutes (3) or were not achieved (1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these results, administration of 2 mg of diazepam/kg via the compounded suppositories used in the present study cannot be recommended for emergency treatment of seizures in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the types of musculoskeletal problems that result in lameness or poor performance in horses used for team roping and determine whether these problems are different in horses used for heading versus heeling.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—118 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of team roping horses that were evaluated because of lameness or poor performance were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, primary use (ie, head horse or heel horse), history, results of physical and lameness examinations, diagnostic tests performed, final diagnosis, and treatment.

Results—Among horses evaluated by lameness clinicians, the proportion with lameness or poor performance was significantly greater in horses used for heading (74/118) and lower in horses used for heeling (44/118) than would be expected under the null hypothesis. Most horses examined for poor performance were lame. A significantly greater proportion of horses used for heading had right forelimb lameness (26/74 [35%]), compared with horses used for heeling (7/44 [16%]). Horses used for heading had more bilateral forelimb lameness (18/74 [24%]), compared with horses used for heeling (4/44 [9%]). Horses used for heeling had more bilateral hind limb lameness (3/44 [7%]), compared with horses used for heading (0%). The most common musculoskeletal problems in horses used for heading were signs of pain limited to the distal sesamoid (navicular) area, signs of pain in the navicular area plus osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints, and soft tissue injury in the forelimb proximal phalangeal (pastern) region. Heeling horses most commonly had signs of pain in the navicular area, osteoarthritis of the metatarsophalangeal joints, and osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses used for heading were most commonly affected by lameness in the right forelimb. Horses used for heeling had more bilateral hind limb lameness than horses used for heading. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1694–1699)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify types of musculoskeletal problems associated with lameness or poor performance in horses used for barrel racing.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—118 horses.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, physical and lameness examination findings, diagnostic tests performed, diagnosis, and treatment.

Results—Most horses were examined because of lameness (n = 72 [61%]) rather than poor performance (46 [39%]), but owner complaint was not significantly associated with age or body weight of the horse. The most common performance change was refusal or failure to turn properly around the first barrel (19/46 [41%]). The right forelimb (n = 57 [48%]) was most commonly affected, followed by the left forelimb (51 [43%]), the left hind limb (31 [26%]), and the right hind limb (25 [21%]). In 31 horses (26%), both forelimbs were affected, and in 6 (5%), both hind limbs were affected. The most common musculoskeletal problems were forelimb foot pain only (n = 39 [33%]), osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints (17 [14%]), suspensory ligament desmitis (15 [13%]), forelimb foot pain with distal tarsal joint osteoarthritis (11 [9%]), and bruised feet (10 [8.5%]). In 81 (69%) horses, the affected joint was treated with intra-articular medications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in horses used for barrel racing that are examined because of lameness or poor performance, the forelimbs are more likely to be affected than the hind limbs, with forelimb foot pain and osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints being the most common underlying abnormalities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 227:1646–1650)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine long-term prognosis for horses with laminitis treated by deep digital flexor (DDF) tenotomy and to identify factors affecting success of the surgical procedure.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

35 horses with laminitis treated by DDF tenotomy between 1988 and 1997.

Procedure

Information was obtained from individual medical records and follow-up telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians. Cumulative proportions of horses that survived 6 months and 2 years after tenotomy were determined. Effect of Obel grade of lameness on 6-month and 2-year survival and effect of distal phalangeal rotation on survival and future performance were evaluated by χ 2 analysis. Body weights of horses that survived ≥ 2 years were compared with those of horses that survived < 2 years by ANOVA.

Results

27 of the 35 (77%) horses survived ≥ 6 months, and 19 of 32 (59%) survived > 2 years. Obel grade of lameness and body weight at time of surgery had no effect on 6-month or 2-year survival. Degree of distal phalangeal rotation had no effect on 2-year survival or the ability of horses to be used for light riding. Twenty-two of the 30 (73%) owners interviewed indicated they would have the procedure repeated on their horses given similar circumstances.

Clinical Implications

DDF tenotomy is a viable alternative for horses with laminitis refractory to conventional medical treatment. In some instances, the procedure may be effective in returning horses to light athletic use. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:517–519).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To describe and compare data from Thoroughbreds that sustained musculoskeletal injuries while racing with data from matched control horses.

Design—

Matched case-control study.

Animals—

216 Thoroughbreds that sustained a musculoskeletal injury while racing and 532 horses from the same races that were not injured.

Procedure—

Data regarding racing history, race-entrant characteristics, racing events determined by analysis of videotapes of races, and results of prerace physical inspections were determined for all horses. Injured horses were compared with control horses by using conditional logistic regression.

Results—

Results of prerace inspection by regulatory veterinarians were significantly associated with injury. Odds of musculoskeletal injury, injury of the suspensory apparatus of the forellmb, and injury of the tendon of the superficial digital flexor muscle of the forelimb were 5.5 to 13.5 times greater among horses assessed to be at increased risk of injury by regulatory veterinarians on the basis of results of prerace inspection than for horses not considered to be at increased risk of injury. Odds of an abnormal finding in the suspensory ligament during prerace inspection were 3.4 times greater among horses that injured the suspensory apparatus than among control horses, and odds of an abnormal finding in the tendon of the superficial digital flexor muscle during prerace inspection were 15 times greater among horses that njured the tendon than among control horses.

Clinical Implications—

Regulatory veterinarians can identify horses during prerace physical inspection that have an increased risk of injury during races. Prerace physical inspections could be used to reduce the risk of injury to Thoroughbreds during races. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:454–463)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association