Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of diazepam administered per rectum via compounded (ie, not commercially available) suppositories and determine whether a dose of 2 mg/kg in this formulation would result in plasma concentrations shown to be effective for control of status epilepticus or cluster seizures (ie, 150 to 300 ng/mL) in dogs within a clinically useful interval (10 to 15 minutes).
Animals—6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 3 dogs each in a crossover-design study. Diazepam (2 mg/kg) was administered IV or via suppository per rectum, and blood samples were collected at predetermined time points. Following a 6- or 7-day washout period, each group received the alternate treatment. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam were analyzed via reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam exceeded the targeted range ≤ 3 minutes after IV administration in all dogs. After suppository administration, targeted concentrations of diazepam were not detected in any dogs, and targeted concentrations of nordiazepam were detected after 90 minutes (n = 2 dogs) or 120 minutes (3) or were not achieved (1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these results, administration of 2 mg of diazepam/kg via the compounded suppositories used in the present study cannot be recommended for emergency treatment of seizures in dogs.
Objective—To determine the types of musculoskeletal
problems that result in lameness or poor performance
in horses used for team roping and determine
whether these problems are different in horses used
for heading versus heeling.
Procedure—Medical records of team roping horses
that were evaluated because of lameness or poor performance
were reviewed to obtain information
regarding signalment, primary use (ie, head horse or
heel horse), history, results of physical and lameness
examinations, diagnostic tests performed, final diagnosis,
Results—Among horses evaluated by lameness clinicians,
the proportion with lameness or poor performance
was significantly greater in horses used for
heading (74/118) and lower in horses used for heeling
(44/118) than would be expected under the null
hypothesis. Most horses examined for poor performance
were lame. A significantly greater proportion
of horses used for heading had right forelimb lameness
(26/74 [35%]), compared with horses used for
heeling (7/44 [16%]). Horses used for heading had
more bilateral forelimb lameness (18/74 [24%]), compared
with horses used for heeling (4/44 [9%]).
Horses used for heeling had more bilateral hind limb
lameness (3/44 [7%]), compared with horses used for
heading (0%). The most common musculoskeletal
problems in horses used for heading were signs of
pain limited to the distal sesamoid (navicular) area,
signs of pain in the navicular area plus osteoarthritis
of the distal tarsal joints, and soft tissue injury in the
forelimb proximal phalangeal (pastern) region. Heeling
horses most commonly had signs of pain in the navicular
area, osteoarthritis of the metatarsophalangeal
joints, and osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses used
for heading were most commonly affected by lameness
in the right forelimb. Horses used for heeling had
more bilateral hind limb lameness than horses used for
heading. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1694–1699)
Objective—To identify types of musculoskeletal
problems associated with lameness or poor performance
in horses used for barrel racing.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for information
on signalment, history, physical and lameness
examination findings, diagnostic tests performed,
diagnosis, and treatment.
Results—Most horses were examined because of
lameness (n = 72 [61%]) rather than poor performance
(46 [39%]), but owner complaint was not significantly
associated with age or body weight of the
horse. The most common performance change was
refusal or failure to turn properly around the first barrel
(19/46 [41%]). The right forelimb (n = 57 [48%])
was most commonly affected, followed by the left
forelimb (51 [43%]), the left hind limb (31 [26%]), and
the right hind limb (25 [21%]). In 31 horses (26%),
both forelimbs were affected, and in 6 (5%), both hind
limbs were affected. The most common musculoskeletal
problems were forelimb foot pain only (n =
39 [33%]), osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints (17
[14%]), suspensory ligament desmitis (15 [13%]),
forelimb foot pain with distal tarsal joint osteoarthritis
(11 [9%]), and bruised feet (10 [8.5%]). In 81 (69%)
horses, the affected joint was treated with intra-articular
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in horses used for barrel racing that are
examined because of lameness or poor performance,
the forelimbs are more likely to be affected than the
hind limbs, with forelimb foot pain and osteoarthritis
of the distal tarsal joints being the most common
underlying abnormalities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;