Objective—To describe the number and types of veterinary professional degree and certificate programs providing education in the area of public practice to veterinarians and determine the availability of these programs via distance learning.
Procedures—Web-based internet searches were performed for programs for veterinary public practice or public health, population medicine, or Master's degree in Epidemiology. The information reviewed was derived from individual school and program Web sites and from personal e-mail correspondence with school administrators.
Results—17 professional degree and 4 certificate programs were available to provide education and training in the areas of public practice and population medicine to veterinarians. Twelve of these programs have begun since 1998. Of the 17 professional degree programs, 7 are located in the United States and 10 are located in other countries. Nine of the professional degree programs provide education through traditional teaching methods, and 8 provide education and training through distance learning.
Conclusions—During the preceding 5 years, the number of programs available to educate and train veterinarians in the areas of public practice and population medicine has increased. Distance learning is being used to increase capacity and reach a broader audience of veterinarians. With the increase in programs has come an increase in capacity to educate and train veterinarians in the fields of population medicine and public practice. The impact and sustainability of this increased capacity have not been evaluated.
Objective—To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of common respiratory tract pathogens from sheep and goats.
Sample Population—41 respiratory tract isolates from sheep and 36 isolates from goats.
Procedures—Disk diffusion assay was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, and tetracycline. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of florfenicol for these isolates were determined by use of the microbroth dilution technique.
Results—The most common isolates were Pasteurella multocida (n = 28) and Mannheimia haemolytica (39). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, and florfenicol. Five percent (4/77) of isolates were resistant to tetracycline.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from sheep and goats to commonly used antimicrobial drugs in this study was high. Treatment of these species for bacterial respiratory tract disease is likely not complicated by antimicrobial resistance.
To explore veterinarians' perceptions and veterinary experts' opinions regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) on dairy farms in the western United States.
20 dairy veterinarians and 9 AMS experts.
3 focus group discussions involving 20 dairy veterinarians from California, Idaho, and Washington and an expert opinion study involving 9 North American AMS experts were conducted. During focus group discussions, participants were asked open-ended questions regarding implementation of AMS programs on dairy farms. Discussions were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. An asynchronous nominal group process was used for the expert opinion study. Participants were asked to complete a series of 3 online surveys consisting of open-ended questions. Expert opinion data underwent thematic analysis and were compared with results obtained from focus group discussions.
Veterinarian-perceived barriers to implementation of AMS on dairy farms included variable relationships with clients and farm employees, ensuring AMS provided value to the farm, and uncertainty about regulations for monitoring on-farm antimicrobial use (AMU). Veterinarians were willing to accept additional responsibility for AMU provided that protocols were adopted to ensure them more complete control of on-farm AMU and they were compensated. The AMS experts indicated that effective implementation of AMS on dairy farms requires producer buy-in and tools to facilitate treatment protocol development and monitoring.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Additional veterinary oversight of AMU on dairy farms will require engagement by both veterinarians and producers and practical value-added methods for AMS. Continuing education programs should address treatment protocol development, AMU monitoring strategies, and employee training.
Objective—To evaluate serovar and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica isolated from preweaned calves and identify management risk factors associated with fecal shedding of S enterica.
Sample Population—Cohorts of 10 to 15 preweaned calves (1 to 84 days of age) on 26 dairies and 7 calf ranches and cross-sectional samples of preweaned calves on smaller farms.
Procedures—Calves were evaluated every 2 weeks during a 6-week period. Salmonella isolates obtained from rectal fecal swabs underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 12 antimicrobials. Cluster analysis enabled description of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Calf, cohort, and farm risk factors associated with both the prevalence of S enterica and multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica in preweaned calves were identified with repeated-measure logistic regression models.
Results—Salmonella enterica was detected on > 50% of farms and in 7.5% of 3,686 fecal samples. Many isolates (33%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. Shedding of Salmonella spp was negatively associated with increasing calf age, herds being closed to incoming cattle, and antimicrobial supplementation of milk replacer; prophylactic antimicrobial treatment in day-old calves increased shedding. No association between farm management and presence of multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica or between calving management and presence of S enterica in calves ≤ 1 week old was detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In preweaned calves, the most important factors associated with decreased likelihood of fecal shedding of S enterica were the use of antimicrobial-supplemented milk replacer and maintenance of a closed herd. Infection with multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica was not associated with antimicrobial administration.
Animals—250 postparturient dairy cows in a herd
with postparturient hypocalcemia, retained fetal
membranes, dystocia, stillbirth, or twins.
Procedure—Cows were given 4 mg of ECP (treatment)
or 2 mL of vegetable oil (control) by IM injection
within 24 to 36 hours of calving. Monitoring rectal
temperatures and evaluation for metritis was performed
once daily for 10 days. Cows with fever ≥
39.7°C (103.5°F) were treated with 1.5 g of ceftiofur
Results—When assessed by ordinal logistic regression,
there were no differences between groups in
incidence of mild or severe metritis. Cows that calved
during the second or third quarter of the year were at
increased risk of metritis, compared with those that
calved during the fourth quarter. Following stratification
by lactation (first and ≥ 2), it was observed that
multiparous cows that did not receive antimicrobials
during the first 3 days of the postparturient period
were 5 times as likely to have metritis, compared with
cows treated with antimicrobials on the basis of fever
or other concurrent disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prophylactic
administration of ECP to dairy cows at high risk for
metritis did not reduce risk for metritis. Treating multiparous
cows with antimicrobials on the basis of
fever during the early postpartum period was associated
with decreased incidence of metritis. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;223:846–851)
Objective—To determine the effects of estradiol cypionate
(ECP) on measures of reproductive efficiency
in postparturient dairy cows.
Design—Randomized clinical trial.
Animals—273 cows in a single herd in California.
Procedure—Twenty-four hours after parturition, 122
cows were treated with ECP (4 mg, IM); the remaining
151 cows were untreated controls. Percentages of cattle
with abnormal findings during uterine palpation 27
to 40 days after parturition were compared between
groups, along with days to first artificial insemination
(AI), percentages of cows that were not pregnant after
the first AI, and days to pregnancy.
Results—Treatment with ECP did not have a significant
effect on whether results of uterine palpation 27
to 40 days after parturition were abnormal, days to first
AI, or odds that a cow would be pregnant after the first
AI. Treatment with ECP appeared to have a negative
effect on days to pregnancy (hazard ratio, 0.72)
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that prophylactic administration of ECP during the
early postparturient period in dairy cows did not have
measurable beneficial effects on reproductive efficiency.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:220–223)
Objective—To identify the perceived market or client
demand for dairy on-farm food safety services by veterinarians,
the need for a food safety continuing education
program, and the educational issues that might
be addressed in an on-farm food safety curriculum.
Study Population—Consulting dairy veterinarians,
government veterinarians located in California, and
meat packers slaughtering cull dairy cows in
Procedure—Results of a questionnaire supplied to
veterinarians and telephone interviews with meat
packer representatives were analyzed by use of univariate
and multivariate logistic regression procedures.
Results—Some meat packers considered the quality
of incoming cull dairy cattle as a control point for food
safety hazards. More than 50% of dairy and government-
employed veterinarians believed that a current
market for on-farm food safety services exists; > 85%
believed that a potential market exists. Duration since
graduation was negatively correlated with belief in a
current market. Government-employed veterinarians
were more likely to believe in a current market.
Veterinarians were more likely to express a strong
interest in offering on-farm food safety services if
they believed a current market exists, indicated that
they already offer such services, or listed residues
and pathogens as the most important issues facing
the dairy industry.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although a
potential market for on-farm food safety services is
perceived, veterinarians are unsure of their role in this
area. New demands of meat packers slaughtering cull
dairy cows may be the motivation practitioners need
to broach the subject of food safety with clients. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:479–484)
Objective—To understand the epidemiology of animal
bites and exposure, evaluate the animal exposure
reporting system for surveillance of rabies postexposure
prophylaxis (PEP), and identify opportunities to
Design—Period prevalence survey.
Study Population—Pennsylvania residents in 1995.
Procedure—Data from animal bite reports from
Pennsylvania county health offices were summarized
for 1995. Animal bite incidences for the state, counties,
various age groups, and various population densities
were calculated. Animal species, treatment,
location of wounds, and PEP recommendations were
evaluated for exposures.
Results—More than 16,000 animal-related potential
rabies exposures were reported from 65 of 67 counties
in Pennsylvania. The highest incidence was in children
less than 5 years old (324/100,000). Of the 75%
of victims requiring wound treatment, 50% received
antimicrobials, 29% received a tetanus toxoid, and
19% had wounds sutured, were admitted to hospitals,
or were referred for plastic surgery. Although
75% of exposures were to dogs, victims exposed to
cats were 6 times as likely to receive PEP (relative
risk, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 5.1 to 7.4). Thirty
percent of 556 PEP were given for exposures to dogs,
44% for cats, 7% for raccoons, 4% for bats, 2.5% for
squirrels, 2.1% for groundhogs, 2% for foxes, and
8% for exposures to other species. Fifty-nine percent
of owned dogs were up-to-date on rabies vaccinations
compared with 41% of owned cats.
Conclusion—Interventions, such as dog bite prevention
education, vaccination of pets against rabies,
appropriate use of PEP, and reduction of feral cat populations,
should be instituted, enhanced, or better
enforced in communities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To describe geographic, farm-type, and animal-type factors associated with multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from cattle.
Design—Cross-sectional field study.
Sample Population—1,736 fecal samples from cattle on 38 farms in California, Oregon, and Washington.
Procedures—Fecal samples were collected from preweaned calves (2 to 4 weeks old) and cows that recently calved on dairy and beef cow-calf farms, preweaned calves on calf ranches, and 1-year-old steers on feedlots. One fecal E coli isolate per sample was isolated, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested. Escherichia coli isolates were initially clustered by antimicrobial resistance patterns and categorized by number of antimicrobial resistances. A generalized estimating equations cumulative logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with an increase in MAR in fecal E coli isolates from cattle.
Results—MAR was higher in E coli isolates from cattle in California, compared with those from cattle in Washington or Oregon. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was highest in E coli isolates from calves on calf ranches and progressively lower in isolates from feedlot steers, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was higher in E coli isolates from calves than from adult cattle, in E coli isolates from cattle of conventional farms than of organic farms, and in isolates from beef cattle in intensive dairy farm regions than from beef cattle distant from dairy farm regions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MAR in fecal E coli isolates from cattle was influenced by factors not directly associated with the use of antimicrobials, including geographic region, animal age, and purpose (beef vs dairy).
Objective—To assess the use of flunixin meglumine
as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in calves.
Animals—115 calves with diarrhea that were 1 to 21
days old at enrollment.
Procedure—Calves that developed diarrhea were
randomly assigned to receive no flunixin meglumine
(controls), a single dose of flunixin meglumine
(2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb]), or 2 doses of flunixin
meglumine administered 24 hours apart. Serum
IgG concentration and PCV were measured prior to
enrollment in the trial. Calves were evaluated daily
to determine rectal temperature, fecal consistency,
demeanor, and skin elasticity score . The primary
analytic outcome was days of sickness (morbiddays).
Results—Calves with fecal blood and treated with a
single dose of flunixin meglumine had fewer morbiddays
and antimicrobial treatments, compared with
controls. Although not significant, calves given 2
doses of flunixin meglumine in 24 hours had fewer
morbid-days than untreated control calves.
Regardless of severity of diarrhea, calves without
fecal blood did not benefit from the use of flunixin.
For calves with fecal blood, failure of passive transfer
(low serum IgG concentration) was an independent
risk factor for increased morbid-days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment
with a single dose of flunixin meglumine resulted in
fewer antimicrobial treatments and morbid-days in
calves with fecal blood. As observed in other studies,
calves with failure of passive transfer were at high
risk for poor outcomes. This emphasizes the importance
of developing and implementing effective
colostrum delivery programs on dairy farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1329–1333)