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Objective—To describe the number and types of veterinary professional degree and certificate programs providing education in the area of public practice to veterinarians and determine the availability of these programs via distance learning.

Procedures—Web-based internet searches were performed for programs for veterinary public practice or public health, population medicine, or Master's degree in Epidemiology. The information reviewed was derived from individual school and program Web sites and from personal e-mail correspondence with school administrators.

Results—17 professional degree and 4 certificate programs were available to provide education and training in the areas of public practice and population medicine to veterinarians. Twelve of these programs have begun since 1998. Of the 17 professional degree programs, 7 are located in the United States and 10 are located in other countries. Nine of the professional degree programs provide education through traditional teaching methods, and 8 provide education and training through distance learning.

Conclusions—During the preceding 5 years, the number of programs available to educate and train veterinarians in the areas of public practice and population medicine has increased. Distance learning is being used to increase capacity and reach a broader audience of veterinarians. With the increase in programs has come an increase in capacity to educate and train veterinarians in the fields of population medicine and public practice. The impact and sustainability of this increased capacity have not been evaluated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of common respiratory tract pathogens from sheep and goats.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—41 respiratory tract isolates from sheep and 36 isolates from goats.

Procedures—Disk diffusion assay was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, and tetracycline. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of florfenicol for these isolates were determined by use of the microbroth dilution technique.

Results—The most common isolates were Pasteurella multocida (n = 28) and Mannheimia haemolytica (39). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, and florfenicol. Five percent (4/77) of isolates were resistant to tetracycline.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from sheep and goats to commonly used antimicrobial drugs in this study was high. Treatment of these species for bacterial respiratory tract disease is likely not complicated by antimicrobial resistance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To explore veterinarians' perceptions and veterinary experts' opinions regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) on dairy farms in the western United States.


20 dairy veterinarians and 9 AMS experts.


3 focus group discussions involving 20 dairy veterinarians from California, Idaho, and Washington and an expert opinion study involving 9 North American AMS experts were conducted. During focus group discussions, participants were asked open-ended questions regarding implementation of AMS programs on dairy farms. Discussions were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. An asynchronous nominal group process was used for the expert opinion study. Participants were asked to complete a series of 3 online surveys consisting of open-ended questions. Expert opinion data underwent thematic analysis and were compared with results obtained from focus group discussions.


Veterinarian-perceived barriers to implementation of AMS on dairy farms included variable relationships with clients and farm employees, ensuring AMS provided value to the farm, and uncertainty about regulations for monitoring on-farm antimicrobial use (AMU). Veterinarians were willing to accept additional responsibility for AMU provided that protocols were adopted to ensure them more complete control of on-farm AMU and they were compensated. The AMS experts indicated that effective implementation of AMS on dairy farms requires producer buy-in and tools to facilitate treatment protocol development and monitoring.


Additional veterinary oversight of AMU on dairy farms will require engagement by both veterinarians and producers and practical value-added methods for AMS. Continuing education programs should address treatment protocol development, AMU monitoring strategies, and employee training.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate serovar and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica isolated from preweaned calves and identify management risk factors associated with fecal shedding of S enterica.

Sample Population—Cohorts of 10 to 15 preweaned calves (1 to 84 days of age) on 26 dairies and 7 calf ranches and cross-sectional samples of preweaned calves on smaller farms.

Procedures—Calves were evaluated every 2 weeks during a 6-week period. Salmonella isolates obtained from rectal fecal swabs underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 12 antimicrobials. Cluster analysis enabled description of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Calf, cohort, and farm risk factors associated with both the prevalence of S enterica and multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica in preweaned calves were identified with repeated-measure logistic regression models.

ResultsSalmonella enterica was detected on > 50% of farms and in 7.5% of 3,686 fecal samples. Many isolates (33%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. Shedding of Salmonella spp was negatively associated with increasing calf age, herds being closed to incoming cattle, and antimicrobial supplementation of milk replacer; prophylactic antimicrobial treatment in day-old calves increased shedding. No association between farm management and presence of multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica or between calving management and presence of S enterica in calves ≤ 1 week old was detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In preweaned calves, the most important factors associated with decreased likelihood of fecal shedding of S enterica were the use of antimicrobial-supplemented milk replacer and maintenance of a closed herd. Infection with multiple-antimicrobial–resistant S enterica was not associated with antimicrobial administration.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether 4 mg of estradiol cypionate (ECP) administered prophylactically to highrisk postparturient dairy cows decreases incidence of postpartum metritis.

Design—Randomized, placebo-controlled, triplemasked clinical trial.

Animals—250 postparturient dairy cows in a herd with postparturient hypocalcemia, retained fetal membranes, dystocia, stillbirth, or twins.

Procedure—Cows were given 4 mg of ECP (treatment) or 2 mL of vegetable oil (control) by IM injection within 24 to 36 hours of calving. Monitoring rectal temperatures and evaluation for metritis was performed once daily for 10 days. Cows with fever ≥ 39.7°C (103.5°F) were treated with 1.5 g of ceftiofur hydrochloride.

Results—When assessed by ordinal logistic regression, there were no differences between groups in incidence of mild or severe metritis. Cows that calved during the second or third quarter of the year were at increased risk of metritis, compared with those that calved during the fourth quarter. Following stratification by lactation (first and ≥ 2), it was observed that multiparous cows that did not receive antimicrobials during the first 3 days of the postparturient period were 5 times as likely to have metritis, compared with cows treated with antimicrobials on the basis of fever or other concurrent disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prophylactic administration of ECP to dairy cows at high risk for metritis did not reduce risk for metritis. Treating multiparous cows with antimicrobials on the basis of fever during the early postpartum period was associated with decreased incidence of metritis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:846–851)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effects of estradiol cypionate (ECP) on measures of reproductive efficiency in postparturient dairy cows.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—273 cows in a single herd in California.

Procedure—Twenty-four hours after parturition, 122 cows were treated with ECP (4 mg, IM); the remaining 151 cows were untreated controls. Percentages of cattle with abnormal findings during uterine palpation 27 to 40 days after parturition were compared between groups, along with days to first artificial insemination (AI), percentages of cows that were not pregnant after the first AI, and days to pregnancy.

Results—Treatment with ECP did not have a significant effect on whether results of uterine palpation 27 to 40 days after parturition were abnormal, days to first AI, or odds that a cow would be pregnant after the first AI. Treatment with ECP appeared to have a negative effect on days to pregnancy (hazard ratio, 0.72)

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that prophylactic administration of ECP during the early postparturient period in dairy cows did not have measurable beneficial effects on reproductive efficiency. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:220–223)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify the perceived market or client demand for dairy on-farm food safety services by veterinarians, the need for a food safety continuing education program, and the educational issues that might be addressed in an on-farm food safety curriculum.


Study Population—Consulting dairy veterinarians, government veterinarians located in California, and meat packers slaughtering cull dairy cows in California.

Procedure—Results of a questionnaire supplied to veterinarians and telephone interviews with meat packer representatives were analyzed by use of univariate and multivariate logistic regression procedures.

Results—Some meat packers considered the quality of incoming cull dairy cattle as a control point for food safety hazards. More than 50% of dairy and government- employed veterinarians believed that a current market for on-farm food safety services exists; > 85% believed that a potential market exists. Duration since graduation was negatively correlated with belief in a current market. Government-employed veterinarians were more likely to believe in a current market. Veterinarians were more likely to express a strong interest in offering on-farm food safety services if they believed a current market exists, indicated that they already offer such services, or listed residues and pathogens as the most important issues facing the dairy industry.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although a potential market for on-farm food safety services is perceived, veterinarians are unsure of their role in this area. New demands of meat packers slaughtering cull dairy cows may be the motivation practitioners need to broach the subject of food safety with clients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:479–484)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To understand the epidemiology of animal bites and exposure, evaluate the animal exposure reporting system for surveillance of rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), and identify opportunities to reduce PEP.

Design—Period prevalence survey.

Study Population—Pennsylvania residents in 1995.

Procedure—Data from animal bite reports from Pennsylvania county health offices were summarized for 1995. Animal bite incidences for the state, counties, various age groups, and various population densities were calculated. Animal species, treatment, location of wounds, and PEP recommendations were evaluated for exposures.

Results—More than 16,000 animal-related potential rabies exposures were reported from 65 of 67 counties in Pennsylvania. The highest incidence was in children less than 5 years old (324/100,000). Of the 75% of victims requiring wound treatment, 50% received antimicrobials, 29% received a tetanus toxoid, and 19% had wounds sutured, were admitted to hospitals, or were referred for plastic surgery. Although 75% of exposures were to dogs, victims exposed to cats were 6 times as likely to receive PEP (relative risk, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 5.1 to 7.4). Thirty percent of 556 PEP were given for exposures to dogs, 44% for cats, 7% for raccoons, 4% for bats, 2.5% for squirrels, 2.1% for groundhogs, 2% for foxes, and 8% for exposures to other species. Fifty-nine percent of owned dogs were up-to-date on rabies vaccinations compared with 41% of owned cats.

Conclusion—Interventions, such as dog bite prevention education, vaccination of pets against rabies, appropriate use of PEP, and reduction of feral cat populations, should be instituted, enhanced, or better enforced in communities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:190–194)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe geographic, farm-type, and animal-type factors associated with multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from cattle.

Design—Cross-sectional field study.

Sample Population—1,736 fecal samples from cattle on 38 farms in California, Oregon, and Washington.

Procedures—Fecal samples were collected from preweaned calves (2 to 4 weeks old) and cows that recently calved on dairy and beef cow-calf farms, preweaned calves on calf ranches, and 1-year-old steers on feedlots. One fecal E coli isolate per sample was isolated, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested. Escherichia coli isolates were initially clustered by antimicrobial resistance patterns and categorized by number of antimicrobial resistances. A generalized estimating equations cumulative logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with an increase in MAR in fecal E coli isolates from cattle.

Results—MAR was higher in E coli isolates from cattle in California, compared with those from cattle in Washington or Oregon. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was highest in E coli isolates from calves on calf ranches and progressively lower in isolates from feedlot steers, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was higher in E coli isolates from calves than from adult cattle, in E coli isolates from cattle of conventional farms than of organic farms, and in isolates from beef cattle in intensive dairy farm regions than from beef cattle distant from dairy farm regions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MAR in fecal E coli isolates from cattle was influenced by factors not directly associated with the use of antimicrobials, including geographic region, animal age, and purpose (beef vs dairy).

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess the use of flunixin meglumine as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in calves.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—115 calves with diarrhea that were 1 to 21 days old at enrollment.

Procedure—Calves that developed diarrhea were randomly assigned to receive no flunixin meglumine (controls), a single dose of flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb]), or 2 doses of flunixin meglumine administered 24 hours apart. Serum IgG concentration and PCV were measured prior to enrollment in the trial. Calves were evaluated daily to determine rectal temperature, fecal consistency, demeanor, and skin elasticity score . The primary analytic outcome was days of sickness (morbiddays).

Results—Calves with fecal blood and treated with a single dose of flunixin meglumine had fewer morbiddays and antimicrobial treatments, compared with controls. Although not significant, calves given 2 doses of flunixin meglumine in 24 hours had fewer morbid-days than untreated control calves. Regardless of severity of diarrhea, calves without fecal blood did not benefit from the use of flunixin. For calves with fecal blood, failure of passive transfer (low serum IgG concentration) was an independent risk factor for increased morbid-days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with a single dose of flunixin meglumine resulted in fewer antimicrobial treatments and morbid-days in calves with fecal blood. As observed in other studies, calves with failure of passive transfer were at high risk for poor outcomes. This emphasizes the importance of developing and implementing effective colostrum delivery programs on dairy farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1329–1333)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association