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  • Author or Editor: William M. Karlin x
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Objective—To evaluate tendon injuries in horses over a 16-week period by use of ultrasonography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Sample—Tendons of 8 young adult horses.

Procedures—The percentage of experimentally induced tendon injury was evaluated in cross section at the maximal area of injury by use of ultrasonography and MRI at 3, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks after collagenase injection. The MRI signal intensities and histologic characteristics of each tendon were determined at the same time points.

Results—At 4 weeks after collagenase injection, the area of maximal injury assessed on cross section was similar between ultrasonography and MRI. In lesions of > 4 weeks' duration, ultrasonography underestimated the area of maximal cross-sectional injury by approximately 18%, compared with results for MRI. Signal intensity of lesions on T1-weighted images was the most hyperintense of all the sequences, lesions on short tau inversion recovery images were slightly less hyperintense, and T2-weighted images were the most hypointense. Signal intensity of tendon lesions was significantly higher than the signal intensity for the unaltered deep digital flexor tendon. Histologically, there was a decrease in proteoglycan content, an increase in collagen content, and minimal change in fiber alignment during the 16 weeks of the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography may underestimate the extent of tendon damage in tendons with long-term injury. Low-field MRI provided a more sensitive technique for evaluation of tendon injury and should be considered in horses with tendinitis of > 4 weeks' duration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe long-term outcomes of cats managed medically for cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) via a validated owner-based questionnaire.


18 client-owned cats.


Retrospective review of medical records at 2 tertiary referral hospitals was conducted for records of cats diagnosed with CCLD for which medical management was pursued. History, physical examination findings, and medical management strategies were recorded. Owner follow-up was obtained via phone call or an email correspondence interview using a 2-part questionnaire. Part 1 consisted of 5 multiple-choice questions evaluating short-term outcomes following initiation of medical management. Part 2 assessed long-term outcomes via the validated Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index—short form metrology instrument.


Mean follow-up time was 66.5 ± 46.7 months (range, 7 to 154 months). Medical management included oral analgesics, activity restriction, and joint supplements. Of the 18 cats, 13 (72%) were always able to bear weight or became weight bearing within a week following initiation of medical management, and 15 (83%) were reportedly clinically normal within 3 months of initiating medical management, with complete resolution of lameness occurring in less than 2 months in 12 of those cats. Long term, 17 of the 18 (94%) owners reported they felt that their cat had a good to excellent outcome with medical management. The mean Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index—short form score of all cats was 0.29 ± 0.53 (range, 0 to 2.13).


Based on owner follow-up, conservative, nonsurgical management of CCLD can be an effective and appropriate management strategy for some cats; however, some may be best treated with surgical stabilization.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association