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Abstract

Objective—To determine influence of vestibulovaginal stenosis, pelvic" bladder, and recessed vulva on response to treatment for clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—38 spayed female dogs.

Procedure—Medical records and client follow-up were reviewed for dogs evaluated via excretory urography because of clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease. Clinical signs, results of radiography, and response to surgical or medical treatment were analyzed.

Results—Clinical signs included urinary tract infection (n = 24). urinary incontinence (201, vaginitis (11). pollakiuna or stranguria (10), and perivuivar dermatitis (4). Vaginocystourethrographic findings included vestibulovaginal stenosis (n = 28), pelvic bladder (17). and ureteritis or pyeionephritis (4). Ten dogs had a vestibulovaginal ratio 07 < 0.20 (severe stenosisl, 9 dogs had a ratio of 0.20 to 0.25 (moderate stenosis), 9 dogs had a ratio of 0.26 to 0.35 (mild stenosis). and 10 dogs had a ratio of > 0.35 (anatomically normal). Lower urinary tract infection, incontinence, and pelvic bladder were not associated with response to treatment for recessed vulva Vestibulovaginal stenosts with a ratio < 0.20 was signiflcantly associated negatively wlth response to treatment. Dogs without severe vestibulovaglnai stenosls that rened vulvoplasty for a recessed vulva responded well to treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vestibulovaginal stenosis is likely an important factor in dogs with vestibulovaginal ratio < 0.20. Vaginectomy or resection and anastomosis should be considered in dogs with severe vestibulovaginal stenosis and signs of lower urinary tract disease.(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002.221 995–9991

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish an objective method of determining proventricular diameter in psittacine birds by assessment of lateral whole-body radiographic views.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—100 parrots with no signs of gastric disease and 19 parrots with signs of gastric disease.

Procedures—Measurements were obtained for the following variables: proventricular diameter at the level of the junction between the last thoracic vertebra and synsacrum, maximum distance between the dorsal serosa of the proximal aspect of the proventriculus and dorsal border of the sternum, maximum coelomic cavity height at the level of the proximal aspect of the proventriculus, and maximum dorsoventral height of the keel of the sternum. The ratio of proventricular diameter to each of those measurements was calculated and compared among species within the group without signs of gastric disease and between the gastric and nongastric disease groups.

Results—No significant differences were seen among species of parrots without signs of gastric disease for any ratio, but there were significant differences between parrots with gastric signs and those without gastric signs for all ratios. Only the proventricular diameterto-maximum dorsoventral height of the keel of the sternum ratio had no numeric overlap between groups. Sensitivity and specificity of the ratio for detection of proventricular enlargement were both 100%. Six causes associated with proventricular enlargement were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of the proventricular diameter-to-keel height ratio is a new method for evaluating proventricular size in psittacines. Ratio values < 0.48 indicate normal proventricular diameter and the absence of proventricular disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 10-year-old spayed female Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier was referred for evaluation of episodes of apparent pain, dull mentation, lethargy, decreased appetite, and weakness in the hind limbs of 4 months' duration. Abnormalities were not detected during a full medical evaluation. Precontrast and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the head revealed a cystic lesion in the rostral portion of the left frontal lobe without evidence of abnormal contrast enhancement. Analysis of CSF revealed mild mononuclear pleocytosis with no underlying infectious agent. A transfrontal craniotomy was performed. There was no evidence of inflammation or malignancy in the fluid aspirated from

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the radiographic appearance of small and large intestines of cats with various medical conditions and create a quantitative index for interpretation of intestinal diameters on radiographic views of the abdomen.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—74 cats that underwent abdominal radiography.

Procedures—Cats were assigned to 1 of 4 diagnosis categories: no gastrointestinal tract disease (n = 20), nonobstructive gastrointestinal tract disease (32), linear foreign body (LFB; 11), and small intestinal mechanical obstruction not caused by an LFB (11). Abdominal radiographs were evaluated without knowledge of history or diagnosis. Maximum and minimum external small intestine diameter (SID) and colon diameter (CD) were compared; dorsoventral and mediolateral measurements of the cranial end plate of L2 (VEL2) and L5 vertebrae were com-pared. Dorsoventral height of VEL2 from lateral radiographic views was used to determine maximum-SID:VEL2 and maximum-CD:VEL2 ratios. Gas patterns were evaluated.

Results—Nonobstructive gastrointestinal tract disease was more likely than obstruction until a maximum-SID:VEL2 ratio > 2.0. At a maximum-SID:VEL2 ratio of 2.5, probability of a disease not related to the intestinal tract was < 4%. At a maximum-SID:VEL2 ratio of 3.0, probability of a mechanical intestinal obstruction was > 70%. When the maximum-CD:VEL2 ratio was 2.0, probability of LFB was 50%; as the maximum-CD:VEL2 ratio increased beyond 2.0, likelihood of LFB decreased. Both gas pattern and CD correlated with diagnosis category.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Normalizing ratios of maximum-SID:VEL2 and maximum-CD:VEL2 obtained from measurements on lateral radiographic views of the abdomen in cats were related to diagnosis category.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare long-term outcomes of juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS) and triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) in dogs with hip dysplasia.

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—18 dogs with hip dysplasia (ie, distraction index ≥ 0.5 in at least 1 hip joint and no, mild, or moderate radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease [DJD]).

Procedures—Dogs between 4 and 5.5 months old at enrollment were assigned to undergo JPS, and dogs between 5 and 12 months old were assigned to undergo TPO. All dogs were reexamined at 2 years of age.

Results—At 2 years of age, there were no significant differences between groups in regard to lameness scores, angle of extension of the hip joints, distraction index, peak vertical force, acetabular angle, radiographic DJD score, or owner-assigned scores of clinical function. Dorsal acetabular rim angle was significantly higher in dogs that underwent JPS than in dogs that underwent TPO. For dogs that underwent TPO, dorsal acetabular rim angle was significantly decreased and acetabular angle was significantly increased at 2 years of age, compared with values obtained prior to surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that JPS and TPO have similar effects on hip joint conformation in dogs with moderate to severe hip dysplasia but that neither procedure eliminates the hip joint laxity characteristic of hip dysplasia or the progression of degenerative changes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—2 dogs and 5 cats were evaluated for treatment of ureteroliths.

Clinical Findings—Spontaneous retrograde movement of 1 or more ureteroliths was detected by radiography, ultrasonography, fluoroscopy, and a combination of fluoroscopy and ultrasonography. The ureteroliths moved retrograde up to 4 centimeters. Retrograde movement of ureteroliths into the renal pelvis resulted in improved renal function in some patients but made complete surgical removal of all uroliths more difficult.

Treatment and Outcome—Medical management was not successful, and ureteroliths were surgically removed. Surgical management of ureteroliths was complicated by retrograde movement of ureteroliths in the perioperative period.

Clinical Relevance—Ureteroliths can move retrograde within the ureter and even back into the renal pelvis. Retrograde movement of ureteroliths may make surgical planning more difficult.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare long-term results of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy followed by exenteration of the nasal cavity in dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—53 dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.

Procedure—All dogs underwent radiotherapy consisting of administration of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each on consecutive weekdays. For dogs in the surgery group (n = 13), follow-up computed tomography was performed, and dogs were scheduled for surgery if persistent or recurrent tumor was seen.

Results—Perioperative complications for dogs that underwent surgery included hemorrhage requiring transfusion (2 dogs) and subcutaneous emphysema (8). Rhinitis and osteomyelitis-osteonecrosis occurred significantly more frequently in dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group (9 and 4 dogs, respectively) than in dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (4 and 3 dogs, respectively). Two- and 3-year survival rates were 44% and 24%, respectively, for dogs in the radiotherapy group and 69% and 58%, respectively, for dogs in the surgery group. Overall median survival time for dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group (47.7 months) was significantly longer than time for dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (19.7 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that exenteration of the nasal cavity significantly prolongs survival time in dogs with intranasal neoplasia that have undergone radiotherapy. Exenteration after radiotherapy may increase the risk of chronic complications. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:936–941)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of computed tomography (CT) and radiography with histopathologic findings in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLNs) in dogs with primary lung tumors.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—14 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Criteria for inclusion were diagnosis of primary lung tumor, use of thoracic radiography and CT, and histologic confirmation of TBLN status. Medical records were reviewed for signalment; history; and physical examination, clinicopathologic, radiographic, CT, surgical, and histopathologic findings.

Results—Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy was not identified via radiography in any dogs. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy was diagnosed in 5 dogs via CT. Six dogs had histologic confirmation of metastasis to TBLNs. Radiographic diagnosis yielded 6 false-negative and no false-positive results for tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy. Computed tomography yielded 1 falsenegative and no false-positive results. Sensitivity of CT for correctly assessing TBLN status was 83%, and specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value was 100%, and negative predictive value was 89%. Dogs with lymphadenopathy via CT, histologic confirmation of TBLN metastasis, or primary tumors with a histologic grade > 1 had significantly shorter survival times than their counterparts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of CT evaluation of TBLN status were in agreement with histopathologic findings and more accurate than use of thoracic radiography for evaluating TBLNs in dogs with primary lung tumors. Computed tomography imaging should be considered as part of the staging process to more accurately assess the TBLNs in dogs with primary lung tumors.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association