Objective—To determine whether bulk-tank standard
plate counts or plate loop counts and bulk-tank
somatic cell counts (SCC) were associated with
detection of violative antimicrobial residues in milk
from dairy cattle.
Procedure—Information for 1994 through 1997 was
obtained from a large milk marketing cooperative that
operated in multiple states throughout the northeastern
and midwestern United States (16,831 herd-years
of information from 6,546 farms) and from the Ohio
Department of Agriculture Grade-A Milk Certification
Program (12,042 herd-years of information from 4,022
farms). Data were analyzed by use of multivariate
Results—For both data sets, odds that a violative
antibiotic residue would be detected increased as
mean SCC for the herd-year increased. Standard plate
counts and plate loop counts were not associated
with odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of
this study suggested that the odds that a violative
antibiotic residue would be found in bulk-tank milk
increased as mean SCC for the herd-year increased.
This suggests that management practices that would
be expected to influence SCC may also influence the
risk of antibiotic residue violations. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To compare results of intradermal tests
(IDT), conducted using environmental allergens, in
horses without atopy and horses with chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Animals—38 horses (22 horses without atopy and 16
horses with COPD).
Procedure—All horses were examined (physical
examination, hematologic examination, serum biochemical
analyses, examination of bronchoalveolar
lavage fluid). An IDT was conducted, using a full panel
of 73 allergens consisting of grasses, weeds, trees,
molds, and insects. Results of the IDT were evaluated
30 minutes and 4, 6, and 24 hours after injection
of allergens. Horses without atopy were euthanatized,
and gross and histologic changes of lung
parenchyma were assessed.
Results—Horses without atopy had a greater number
of positive immediate and late-phase reactions than
did horses with COPD. Horses with COPD did not
have a significantly greater number of positive reactions
than horses without atopy at any time period for
any allergen group (grasses, weeds, trees, molds,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Positive
results of IDT document allergen-specific hypersensitivity
but do not necessarily distinguish clinically relevant
reactions from subclinical reactivity in horses
with COPD. Interpreting the clinical relevance of
results of IDT requires a thorough knowledge of the
medical history, physical examination findings, and
environment of each animal. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine clinical findings and outcome in horses treated by means of a balloon constant rate infusion system.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of horses examined at The Ohio State University veterinary teaching hospital from 2002 to 2005 that had septic arthritis, septic tenosynovitis, or penetration of a synovial structure and in which treatment involved a balloon constant rate infusion system were searched. Information pertaining to signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, treatment, and duration of hospitalization was recorded.
Results—Mean ± SD duration of hospitalization was 11.5 ± 5.26 days. No correlation between duration of clinical signs and duration of hospitalization or duration of infusion pump use was detected, but correlations between WBC count and duration of hospitalization and WBC and duration of infusion-pump use were observed. All horses survived to discharge. Follow-up information was obtained on 17 horses, 16 of which were alive at the time of follow-up. Twelve of 13 horses for which followup information was available for at least 5 months were alive 5 months or longer after discharge. Thirteen of the 16 horses alive at follow-up were reported by owners as not lame, whereas the remaining 3 were mildly lame or intermittently moderately lame or had developed angular limb deformity in the contralateral limb.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Balloon constant rate infusion systems may be used effectively in treatment of septic arthritis, septic tenosynovitis, and contaminated synovial wounds. Clinical response and long-term outcome appeared to be comparable to results obtained with other techniques.
OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with keratopathy in captive pinnipeds and to provide guidance for preventive measures.
ANIMALS 319 captive pinnipeds (229 otariids [sea lions and fur seals], 74 phocids [true seals], and 16 odobenids [walrus]) from 25 facilities.
PROCEDURES Descriptive data collected from questionnaires completed by facilities and from medical records and physical examinations of pinnipeds were compiled and evaluated. Variables were assessed with χ2 tests of homogeneity to determine potential association with keratopathy, and variables with values of P ≤ 0.25 were inserted into the multivariable logistic regression model.
RESULTS Results indicated that variables associated with significantly increased odds of keratopathy in captive pinnipeds included lighter or reflective pool color (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 3.97), pool water salinity < 29 g/L (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.89 to 6.56), and history of eye disease (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.85 to 5.98), trauma (OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.89), and having been tested for leptospirosis (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.54 to 10.26). However, odds of keratopathy decreased with UV index ≤ 6 (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.72) and age < 20 years (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.66).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings indicated that odds of keratopathy in pinnipeds could be reduced by maintenance of pool water salinity ≥ 29 g/L and reduction of UV radiation exposure (eg, with adequate shade structures and use of darker, natural colors). Because UV radiation exposure is cumulative, even small attempts to reduce lifetime exposure to it could help control keratopathy in pinnipeds.
Objective—To compare a radioallergosorbent test
and 2 ELISA with intradermal testing for the determination
of environmental allergen hypersensitivity in
horses with and without atopic diseases.
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—10 horses with recurrent urticaria, 7 with
atopic dermatitis, 16 with chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, and 22 without atopy.
Procedure—History, physical examination, hemogram,
serum biochemical analyses, bronchoalveolar
lavage, and an intradermal test (used as the criterion
standard) with a regional panel of 73 allergens were
performed in all horses. Serum was analyzed by use
of the 3 in vitro assays of allergen-specific IgE.
Results—An ELISA based on the α chain of the highaffinity
IgE receptor, the Fc∈ receptor immunoglobin ∈
chain (Fc∈RIα) for IgE, had the overall highest kappa
statistic (0.238), positive predictive value (49%), and
negative predictive value (78%). Overall agreement
between the Fc∈RIα-based ELISA and the intradermal
test was fair. The highest kappa statistic was obtained
by the Fc∈RIα-based ELISA in horses with atopic dermatitis
(0.330). Kappa statistics for the radioallergosorbent
test and a polyclonal antibody-based ELISA
agreed slightly with that of the intradermal test at best.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—None of the 3
serum allergy tests reliably detected allergen hypersensitivity,
compared with the intradermal test. The
Fc∈RIα-based ELISA performed significantly better
overall than the other 2 tests. Low sensitivity of all 3
assays indicates the need for continued study to elucidate
a more sensitive test for the determination of
potentially pathogenic allergens in horses. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;218:1314–1322)
Objective—To compare responses to a variety of
intradermally injected allergens among healthy horses
and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD), recurrent urticaria (RU), and atopic dermatitis-insect hypersensitivity (allergic dermatitis
Procedure—Results of intradermal testing for horses
with COPD, RU, or AD were compared with results
for healthy horses.
Results—Compared with healthy horses, horses with
COPD, RU, and AD were significantly more likely to
have positive (≥ 3+) reactions to intradermal allergens
(molds, weeds, trees, grasses-crops, and insects) 30
minutes (immediate reaction), 4 hours (late-phase
reactions), and 24 hours (delayed-phase reactions)
after exposure. In addition, diseased horses reacted
to a significantly higher number of allergens in each
allergen group than did healthy horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reactions to
individual allergens should not be used to determine
that horses have hypersensitivity. Overall patterns of
reactivity to intradermal allergens may be helpful in
management when used in conjunction with a compatible
history and evidence of potential exposure to
allergens in horses with conditions associated with
hypersensitivity to environmental allergens. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;62:1115–1121)
Objective—To evaluate effect of adjunctive treatment with tetracycline analogues on time to complete corneal reepithelialization in dogs with nonhealing (ie, refractory) corneal ulcers.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—89 dogs with refractory corneal ulcers.
Procedures—Corneal ulcers were treated via debridement and grid keratotomy. Dogs were assigned to receive 1 of 3 treatment regimens for up to 6 weeks: doxycycline (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) with topically applied ophthalmic ointment containing neomycin, polymyxin B, and bacitracin (ie, triple antibiotic ointment; q 8 h); cephalexin (22 mg/kg [10 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) with topically applied oxytetracycline ophthalmic ointment (q 8 h); or a control treatment of cephalexin (22 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) with topically applied triple antibiotic ointment (q 8 h). Healing was monitored via measurements of the wound with calipers and evaluation of photographs obtained every 2 weeks. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by wound healing and decreased signs of pain.
Results—The Boxer breed was overrepresented in all groups. At the 2-week time point, wound healing was significantly more common in small-breed dogs, compared with large-breed dogs. Dogs treated with oxytetracycline ophthalmic ointment had a significantly shorter healing time than did dogs receiving the control treatment. Corneal ulcers in dogs that received doxycycline PO healed more rapidly than did ulcers in dogs in the control treatment group; however, this difference was not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical tetracycline ophthalmic ointment was a safe, inexpensive, and effective adjunctive treatment for refractory corneal ulcers in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent of environmental exposure to heteroxenous coccidia from wild canid feces in southeastern Ohio.
SAMPLE 285 presumed wild canid fecal samples collected across an ecological system in southeastern Ohio.
PROCEDURES Morphological classification and molecular analysis were used to determine the canid genus for collected fecal samples. Microscopic and molecular analysis were used to detect coccidian oocysts and DNA. Several variables were analyzed for associations with coccidian DNA detection or prevalence.
RESULTS Coccidian DNA was detected in 51 of 285 (17.9%) fecal samples. Of those positive samples, 1% (95% confidence interval, 0.4% to 3%) had positive results for Hammondia heydorni and none had positive results for Neospora caninum, for an estimated environmental N caninum prevalence of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0% to 7%)/1-km2 hexagonal area evaluated. Morphological classification revealed that 78.9% (225/285) of fecal samples were from coyotes and 17.2% (49/285) were from foxes. No difference in proportions of coccidian DNA-positive fecal samples was identified among canid species. Environmental temperature and fecal freshness were associated with coccidian DNA detection. Land use type, relative canid density, and cattle density were not associated with the prevalence of coccidian DNA-positive samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The low prevalence of coccidia shed in wild canid feces in this study, including the estimated 0% environmental prevalence of N caninum, suggested that the role of the oocyst environmental phase in coccidia transmission to ruminants is likely minor in rural southeastern Ohio.
Objective—To investigate risk factors for development
of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in
Animals—251 horses admitted to The Ohio State
University Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1992 to
Procedure—On the basis of clinical signs of neurologic
disease and detection of antibody to Sarcocystis
neurona or S neurona DNA in cerebrospinal fluid, a
diagnosis of EPM was made for 251 horses. Two contemporaneous
series of control horses were selected
from horses admitted to the hospital. One control
series (n = 225) consisted of horses with diseases of
the neurologic system other than EPM (neurologic
control horses), and the other consisted of 251 horses
admitted for reasons other than nervous system
diseases (nonneurologic control horses). Data were
obtained from hospital records and telephone conversations.
Risk factors associated with disease status
were analyzed, using multivariable logistic regression.
Results—Horses ranged from 1 day to 30 years old
(mean ± SD, 5.7 ± 5.2 years). Risk factors associated
with an increased risk of developing EPM included
age, season of admission, prior diagnosis of EPM on
the premises, opossums on premises, health events
prior to admission, and racing or showing as a primary
use. Factors associated with a reduced risk of
developing EPM included protection of feed from
wildlife and proximity of a creek or river to the premises
where the horse resided.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Development
of EPM was associated with a number of management-related factors that can be altered to decrease
the risk for the disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc