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A total of 2,614 swine from 104 herds located throughout Iowa were tested for antibodies against encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) by use of the microtitration serum neutralization test. The sample was composed of 587 sows and gilts and 2,027 finishing swine. A statistically significant (P < 0.002) difference was observed between prevalence in sows and gilts (17.2%) and that in finishing swine (12.2%). Breeding swine maintained in total confinement (20.5%) had significantly (P = 0.04) higher prevalence than did breeders maintained in other types of housing (12.1%), whereas prevalence in finishing swine raised in total confinement (6.4%) was significantly (P = 0.02) lower that in finishers not raised in total confinement (13.6%). Association was not detected between prevalence and herd size or between prevalence and season of the year. Adjusting for test specificity and sensitivity, the true prevalence of emcv infection in swine in Iowa was estimated to be 13.8% in breeding stock and 8.5% in finishing swine. On a herd basis, 89.4% (93/104) of the herds had one or more emcv-positive swine.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Of swine from 104 herds, 2,616 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, using an elisa. Data were analyzed according to swine type, herd size, facility type, and season. The true prevalence of toxoplasmosis was estimated as 5.4% among finishing swine and 11.4% among sows and gilts. Herds with <100 breeding swine were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to be infected than were herds with ≥100 breeding swine. The rate of seropositivity in breeding swine was approximately the same in infected herds, regardless of herd size. Herds with finishing swine maintained in total confinement were as likely to become infected as were herds maintained in other types of facilities, but infected herds with finishing swine maintained in confinement appeared to have a lower in-herd prevalence than did herds maintained in other types of facilities (P = 0.09). Seasonal effects were not observed, and prevalence remained relatively constant throughout the year.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To conduct a retrospective multi-institutional study reporting short- and long-term outcomes of adrenalectomy in patients presenting with acute hemorrhage secondary to spontaneous adrenal rupture.


59 dogs and 3 cats.


Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing adrenalectomy between 2000 and 2021 for ruptured adrenal masses were reviewed. Data collected included clinical presentation, preoperative diagnostics, surgical report, anesthesia and hospitalization findings, histopathology, adjuvant treatments, and long-term outcome (recurrence, metastasis, and survival).


Median time from hospital admission to surgery was 3 days, with 34% of surgeries being performed emergently (within 1 day of presentation). Need for intraoperative blood transfusion was significantly associated with emergent surgery and presence of active intraoperative hemorrhage. The short-term (≤ 14 days) complication and mortality rates were 42% and 21%, respectively. Negative prognostic factors for short-term survival included emergent surgery, intraoperative hypotension, and performing additional surgical procedures. Diagnoses included adrenocortical neoplasia (malignant [41%], benign [12%], and undetermined [5%]), pheochromocytoma (38%), a single case of adrenal fibrosis and hemorrhage (2%), and a single case of hemangiosarcoma (2%). Local recurrence and metastasis of adrenocortical carcinoma were confirmed in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. Overall median survival time was 574 days and 900 days when short-term mortality was censored. No significant relationship was found between histopathological diagnosis and survival.


Adrenalectomy for ruptured adrenal gland masses was associated with similar short- and long-term outcomes as compared with previously reported nonruptured cases. If hemodynamic stability can be achieved, delaying surgery and limiting additional procedures appear indicated to optimize short-term survival.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association