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  • Author or Editor: William J. Donawick x
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SUMMARY

Mucosa obtained from the cecum of healthy horses and incubated in vitro with 0.1 mM cycloleucine could accumulate this amino acid against an apparent concentration gradient after 60 and 120 minutes. Accumulation by the serosal (antiluminal) surface of the tissue was 3 times greater than accumulation by the mucosal (luminal) surface after 120 minutes (P < 0.001). Cycloleucine accumulation was significantly reduced by Na deprivation after 60 minutes (P< 0.05) and 120 minutes (P < 0.01) and by anoxic conditions after 120 minutes (P < 0.05). Transmucosal flux from mucosal to serosal surface of the tissue was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than the opposing flux, but both unidirectional fluxes were small and were largely attributed to passive processes. It was concluded that the most avid transport system for cycloleucine was on the serosal surface of the horse's cecal mucosa, and an active transport system was not evident on the mucosal surface. An active transport system for amino acids on the serosal surface could be explained by the need for crypt cells, the predominant epithelial cell type in the cecum, to obtain nutrients from blood, rather than from the intestinal lumen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The case records of 20 cows with either a third-degree perineal laceration or rectovestibular fistula were reviewed to ascertain the signalment, history, treatment, and long-term result of treatment. Fifteen cows, including 10 first-calf cows, had third-degree perineal lacerations that occurred at calving. Surgery was done in 14 of 15 cows; 10 of the 14 (71 %) remained fertile. The cow that was not treated surgically was culled after 24 months because of infertility. Five cows had a rectovestibular fistula; 4 of these were treated surgically. The cow that did not have surgery healed by second intention and remained fertile, and 3 of the 4 cows in which surgery was performed were fertile. None of the cows that produced calves after the initial injury suffered a perineal laceration at subsequent calvings. Single-stage surgical repair of third-degree perineal laceration or rectovestibular fistula appeared to have a good prognosis for subsequent fertility in cows.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 66 calves with atresia coli were reviewed; 64 calves were examined at the New York State College of Veterniary Medicine, and 2 calves were examined at the New Bolton Center. In each case, the site of the atresia was within the spiral loop of the ascending colon. In 1 of these calves, a segment of jejunum was also atretic. Absence of feces, progressive weakness, and abdominal distension were the most common clinical signs observed. Other congenital abnormalities were detected in 12 (18%) of 66 calves.

Of the 66 calves examined, 5 were euthanatized or died on admission, and 61 had an exploratory celiotomy performed. Eight calves were euthanatized or died during the surgery. In the remaining 53 calves, surgical treatment consisted of enterotomy followed by meconium evacuation, resection of the proximal blind end (in 30 calves), and restoration of intestinal continuity. Restoration of intestinal continuity was done either by side-to-side anastomosis of the proximal to distal blind ends (5 calves), or by side-to-side or end-to-side anastomosis of the proximal blind end to the descending colon (48 calves). Of the 66 calves seen, 27 (41 %) were discharged from the hospital, and 11 of these reached reproductive age (11 calves were lost to follow-up before they were 2 years old). From the 11 calves reaching reproductive age, 33 calves were born, one of which may have had atresia coli. The owners should anticipate that long-term survivors likely will have loose feces and normal offspring, but may not grow as well as otherwise expected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Loop colostomy was performed in 10 horses as treatment for grade-III rectal tears (n = 6 horses), small-colon infarction (n = 2 horses), perirectal abscess and stenosis (n = 1 horse), and small-colon stricture (n = 1 horse). In 7 horses, the colostomy was constructed through a single incision low in the left flank, with closure of the incision around the stoma (single-incision technique). In 3 horses, 2 of which had colostomy performed as a standing procedure, the selected segment of small colon was placed from a flank incision into a separate, small incision low in the left flank (double-incision technique).

Five horses underwent colostomy reversal (at 18 to 63 days) and 2 of these horses, both with grade-III rectal tears, recovered completely. Of 8 horses that did not survive, 6 died from the primary disease or associated complications. Technical problems associated with colostomy accounted for death of 2 horses. One horse had gastric rupture attributable to suture occlusion of the small intestine after colostomy reversal, and another horse had complications of incisional infection after repair of a peristomal hernia. Small-colon prolapse through the stoma necessitated premature reversal of the colostomy in a horse that was euthanatized because of worsening laminitis. Minor complications of the colostomy procedure were partial stomal dehiscence (n = 4 horses), partial dehiscence of the flank wound after colostomy reversal (n = 2 horses), and small ventral midline hernia after colostomy reversal (n = 1 horse).

Loop colostomy may be of benefit to horses with rectal tears, provided it is done soon after the tear occurs. The double-incision technique for loop colostomy is recommended, because it appeared to reduce the risks of peristomal herniation and stomal prolapse. Other recommendations are made to reduce complications of colostomy and facilitate reversal.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association