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  • Author or Editor: William H. Crawford x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine arthroscopic findings in lame horses with subtle radiographic lesions of the medial femoral condyle.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 horses examined because of lameness that had subtle radiographic evidence of osteochondral lesions involving the medial femoral condyle in at least 1 joint.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and results of physical examination, radiography, and arthroscopy were recorded. Follow-up information was obtained through reexamination of the horses or telephone conversations with the referring veterinarians, owners, or trainers.

Results—Lameness severity ranged from grade 1 to 3 on a scale from 0 to 5. Radiography and arthroscopy were performed on 28 stifle joints. The 4 unaffected joints in 4 horses with unilateral hind limb lameness that underwent bilateral arthroscopy had no radiographic lesions, but 2 of the 4 had arthroscopic lesions. Of the remaining 24 joints, 20 had radiographic evidence of flattening of the apex of the medial femoral condyle and 4 had minimal subchondral lucency. Lesions were identified arthroscopically in 18 of the 20 joints with flattening of the condyle and in all 4 joints with subchondral lucency. Treatment consisted of abrasion arthroplasty or microfracture. Seven of the 9 horses with focal cartilage lesions and 2 of the 6 horses with generalized cartilage lesions were reportedly sound without any evidence of joint effusion at the time of final follow-up.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that horses with hind limb lameness and subtle radiographic lesions of the medial femoral condyle are likely to have arthroscopically apparent cartilage lesions and subchondral bone defects. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1821–1826)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the long-term clinical outcome of horses with distal tarsal osteoarthritis (OA) in which a 3-drill-tract technique was used to induce arthrodesis of the affected joints, identify any preoperative or operative factors associated with outcome, and describe any complications associated with the technique.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—54 horses.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, use, history, physical and lameness examination findings, surgical technique, and postoperative care. Radiographs were examined, and severity of OA was graded. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners at least 13 months after the procedure.

Results—32 (59%) horses had a successful outcome, 6 (11%) improved but were not sound after surgery, and 16 (30%) did not improve following surgery. Outcome was negatively associated with the previous use of intra-articular injections. Few postoperative complications were evident.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that distal tarsal OA in horses can be successfully treated by means of distal tarsal arthrodesis with a 3-drill-tract technique. Horses with advanced distal tarsal OA are likely to have poorer outcomes, and the procedure will likely be of minimal benefit in horses with concomitant causes of hind limb lameness prior to surgery and in horses with preexisting proximal intertarsal joint disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223;1800–1805)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the efficacy of long-term enalapril administration in delaying the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF).

Design—Placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter, randomized trial.

Animals—124 dogs with compensated mitral valve regurgitation (MR).

Procedures—Dogs randomly assigned to receive enalapril or placebo were monitored for the primary endpoint of onset of CHF for ≤ 58 months. Secondary endpoints included time from study entry to the combined endpoint of CHF-all-cause death; number of dogs free of CHF at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 days; and mean number of CHF-free days.

Results—Kaplan-Meier estimates of the effect of enalapril on the primary endpoint did not reveal a significant treatment benefit. Chronic enalapril administration did have a significant benefit on the combined endpoint of CHF-all-cause death (benefit was 317 days [10.6 months]). Dogs receiving enalapril remained free of CHF for a significantly longer time than those receiving placebo and were significantly more likely to be free of CHF at day 500 and at study end.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chronic enalapril treatment of dogs with naturally occurring, moderate to severe MR significantly delayed onset of CHF, compared with placebo, on the basis of number of CHF-free days, number of dogs free of CHF at days 500 and study end, and increased time to a combined secondary endpoint of CHF-all-cause death. Improvement in the primary endpoint, CHF-free survival, was not significant. Results suggest that enalapril modestly delays the onset of CHF in dogs with moderate to severe MR.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association