Objective—To determine whether Scottish Terriers have higher serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and a higher prevalence of diseases commonly associated with high serum ALP activity than do dogs of other breeds.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—85 Scottish Terriers and 340 age-matched control dogs that were not Scottish Terriers.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and data for year of evaluation, age, sex, breed, serum ALP activity, and final diagnosis were recorded.
Results—Scottish Terriers had a significantly higher mean serum ALP activity than did control dogs (1,520 U/L vs 306 U/L). Regardless of breed, dogs that had a disease commonly associated with high serum ALP activity had a significantly higher mean serum ALP activity than did dogs without such diseases (1,304 U/L vs 427 U/L). Scottish Terriers were 2.4 times as likely to have a disease commonly associated with high serum ALP activity than were control dogs, but Scottish Terriers with diseases commonly associated with high serum ALP activity had a significantly higher mean ALP activity than did control dogs with such diseases (2,073 U/L vs 909 U/L), and Scottish Terriers without such diseases had a significantly higher mean serum ALP activity than did control dogs without such diseases (1,349 U/L vs 228 U/L).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that Scottish Terriers have higher serum ALP activities than do dogs of other breeds. Although Scottish Terriers also have a higher prevalence of diseases associated with high serum ALP activity, this alone did not explain the higher mean serum ALP activity in the breed.
Objective—To assess antimicrobial resistance among bacteria isolated from dogs and cats admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital (VTH), determine the incidence of acquisition of and frequency of persistent colonization by antimicrobial-resistant organisms among these animals, and identify risk factors associated with these variables.
Design—Prospective longitudinal study.
Animals—622 dogs and 92 cats admitted to a VTH and expected to stay ≥ 48 hours.
Procedures—Samples were collected with rectal and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs at admission and discharge. Isolates of enterococci, staphylococci, and Escherichia coli were tested for antimicrobial resistance via microbroth dilution methods. A subset of isolates was analyzed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Significant trends in proportions of organisms with antimicrobial resistance over the 3-year study period were assessed.
Results—The proportion of staphylococci with antimicrobial resistance increased, whereas the proportion of E coli with resistance decreased, over time; resistance among enterococci was more variable. For 506 dogs with paired admission and discharge samples, multidrug-resistant (MDR) E coli was acquired by 40 (8%) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was acquired by 7 (1.4%); hospitalization for > 3 days was significantly associated with both variables. Most (5/7 isolates) acquired MRSA was of sequence type (ST) 5.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Extended hospitalization was associated with increased risk of acquiring MDR E coli or MRSA, although few animals acquired MRSA. It is unclear whether associations were confounded by illness severity or use of infection control measures. Additionally, MRSA of ST5, which has been associated with small animal medicine, was the most commonly acquired MRSA in this study.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of antibodies against 6 Leptospira serovars and determine risk factors associated with positive Leptospira titers in healthy client-owned dogs in Michigan.
Animals—1,241 healthy dogs at least 4 months of age.
Procedures—Dogs were examined by veterinarians at private practices. Vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs were enrolled in the study, which occurred prior to the availability of a 4-serovar (Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona) Leptospira vaccine. Sera were tested by use of the microscopic agglutination test to determine antibody titers against Leptospira serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information about each dog to identify risk factors associated with seropositive status.
Results—309 of 1,241 (24.9%) dogs had antibody titers against at least 1 of the 6 Leptospira serovars, which suggested exposure to Leptospira spp. Prevalence of antibodies was highest to serovar Grippotyphosa, followed by Bratislava, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Age, travel outside Michigan, exercise outside fenced yards, and exposure to livestock and wildlife were significant risk factors for positive titers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among healthy dogs from the lower peninsula of Michigan, > 20% have antibodies against leptospiral serovars historically considered uncommon but more recently incriminated as causing clinical canine leptospirosis. Wildlife and livestock may be of increasing importance as reservoirs for canine leptospirosis as urbanization continues to occur. Expanded vaccination strategies may partially mitigate these trends.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) after IV and oral administration to dogs and effects of TTM administration on trace mineral concentrations.
ANIMALS 8 adult Beagles and Beagle crossbreds (4 sexually intact males and 4 sexually intact females).
PROCEDURES Dogs received TTM (1 mg/kg) IV and orally in a randomized crossover study. Serum molybdenum and copper concentrations were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in samples obtained 0 to 72 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetics was determined via noncompartmental analysis.
RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 4.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL, 30.7 ± 5.4 μg/mL•h, and 27.7 ± 6.8 hours, respectively. For oral administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, time to maximum concentration, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 3.0 ± 3.5 hours, 0.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL, 6.5 ± 8.0 μg/mL•h, and 26.8 ± 8.0 hours, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 21 ± 22%. Serum copper concentrations increased significantly after IV and oral administration. Emesis occurred after IV (2 dogs) and oral administration (3 dogs).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetics for TTM after a single IV and oral administration was determined for clinically normal dogs. Absorption of TTM after oral administration was variable. Increased serum copper concentrations suggested that TTM mobilized tissue copper. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic use of TTM in copper-associated chronic hepatitis of dogs.