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Objective—To assess accuracy and reliability of open-flow indirect calorimetry in dogs.

Animals—13 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—In phase 1, oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight (VO2kg) was determined in 6 anesthetized dogs by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry before and after determination of VO2/kg by use of closed-circuit spirometry. In phase 2, four serial measurements of VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained in 7 awake dogs by use of indirect calorimetry on 2 consecutive days. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was calculated.

Results—Level of clinical agreement was acceptable between results of indirect calorimetry and spirometry. Mean VO2/kg determined by use of calorimetry before spirometry was significantly greater than that obtained after spirometry. In phase 2, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for REE and VO2 were 0.779 and 0.786, respectively, when data from all 4 series were combined. When the first series was discounted, ICC increased to 0.904 and 0.894 for REE and VO2, respectively. The most reliable and least variable measures of REE and VO2 were obtained when the first 2 series were discounted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Open-flow indirect calorimetry may be used clinically to obtain a measure of VO2 and an estimate of REE in dogs. Serial measurements of REE and VO2 in clinically normal dogs are reliable, but a 10-minute adaption period should be allowed, the first series of observations should be discounted, multiple serial measurements should be obtained, and REE. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1761–1767).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare replication of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) obtained from juvenile cattle, sheep, white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus), and black-tailed deer (BTD; O hemionus columbianus).

Sample Population—Cultures of pulmonary artery ECs obtained from 3 cattle, 3 sheep, 3 WTD, and 1 BTD.

Procedure—Purified cultures of pulmonary artery ECs were established. Replication, incidence of infection, and cytopathic effects of prototype strains of BTV serotype 17 (BTV-17) and 2 serotypes of EHDV (EHDV-1), and (EHDV-2) were compared in replicate cultures of ECs from each of the 4 ruminant species by use of virus titration and flow cytometric analysis.

Results—All 3 viruses replicated in ECs from the 4 ruminant species; however, BTV-17 replicated more rapidly than did either serotype of EHDV. Each virus replicated to a high titer in all ECs, although titers of EHDV-1 were significantly lower in sheep ECs than in ECs of other species. Furthermore, all viruses caused extensive cytopathic effects and a high incidence of cellular infection; however, incidence of cellular infection and cytopathic effects were significantly lower in EHDV-1-infected sheep ECs and EHDV-2-infected BTD ECs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There were only minor differences in replication, incidence of infection, and cytopathic effects for BTV-17, EHDV-1, or EHDV-2 in ECs of cattle, sheep, BTD, and WTD. It is not likely that differences in expression of disease in BTV- and EHDV-infected ruminants are attributable only to species-specific differences in the susceptibility of ECs to infection with the 2 orbiviruses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:860–865)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Replication of bluetongue virus (btv) in leukocytes from the blood of sheep, cattle, elk, and mule deer inoculated with btv serotype 10 or 17 was assessed by immunocytochemical staining and dot blot northern hybridization to determine if differences in the prevalence of infection in this blood fraction might account for the differences in clinical disease among these species. Viremia was confirmed by virus isolation in all inoculated animals. Analysis of leukocytes with monoclonal antibodies specific for btv proteins revealed low numbers of infected leukocytes in only 2 sheep 8 days after inoculation with btv serotype 10. Most of the cells expressing btv were identified morphologically as monocytes; approximately 10% of infected cells were lymphocytes. Bluetongue virus was not detected by use of dot-blot hybridization on samples of blood. Our results suggest that differential infection of leukocytes does not account for the pronounced differences in clinical signs and pathologic changes among ruminants.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research