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Summary

Blood samples obtained from 13 of 100 (13%) and 6 of 91 (7%) horses at the George D. Widener Hospital for Large Animals in the months of June and October, respectively, had antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi as determined by ELISA. Horses from the states of New York, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania were seropositive for B burgdorferi. The frequency of antibody response in horses from New Jersey was greater (P < 0.05) than the frequency of antibody response in horses from Pennsylvania or that of horses from the other states combined. Statistically significant difference was not found when a comparison was made between horses with serotiter and open diagnosis of neurologic or musculoskeletal disease and horses with negative serotest results and open diagnosis of neurologic or musculoskeletal disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To compare the efficacy of 7% NaCI solution (hypertonic saline) in 6% dextran 70 solution (HSD) with that of lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) for treatment of dogs in traumatic shock.

Design—

Prospective, randomized, clinical study.

Animals—

16 traumatized adult dogs with clinical signs of shock.

Procedure—

Physical, hemodynamic, blood gas, and clinical chemistry measurements were performed prior to treatment. Initial treatment consisted of HSD (n = 8) or LRS (n = 8) administered as a bolus (5 ml/kg of body weight, IV) over a 3-minute period, followed by administration of additional LRS and other treatments to restore hemodynamic and physical criteria to within reference limits. Measurements were repeated for 3 hours after initial treatment. The volumes of LRS and HSD administered were recorded hourly. Degree of injury was scored by using a trauma severity index.

Results—

Dogs responded similarly to the treatments, and all but 3 dogs survived to be discharged. The amount of fluid administered to dogs in the HSD group over the final 2 hours of the study was significantly less than that administered to the dogs in the LRS group. Serum sodium concentration and osmolality of the dogs in the HSD group were not significantly greater than those values in the LRS group. Bradyarrhythmias were observed in 2 dogs in the HSD group.

Clinical Implications—

Hypertonic sodium chloride/ dextran solution is safe and effective for resuscitating dogs in traumatic shock. Seven percent NaCI in 6% dextran 70 may reduce the need for isotonic fluids in the hours after initial resuscitation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:366-370)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether gavage of pregnant mares (housed without access to pasture) with starved eastern tent caterpillars (ETCs) or their excreta is associated with early fetal loss (EFL), panophthalmitis, or pericarditis.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—15 mares.

Procedure—15 mares with fetuses from 40 to 80 days of gestation (dGa) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups and received 2.5 g of ETC excreta, 50 g of starved ETCs, or 500 mL of water, respectively, once daily for 10 days. Mares were housed in box stalls, walked twice daily, and not allowed access to pasture for 12 days before or during the 21-day trial.

Results—4 of 5 mares gavaged with starved ETCs (group 2) aborted on trial days 8 (2 mares), 10, and 13. No control mares or mares that received excreta aborted. Differences between the ETC group and other groups were significant. Abortion occurred on 49, 64, 70, and 96 dGa. Allantoic fluids became hyperechoic the day before or the day of fetal death. Alpha streptococci were recovered from 1 fetus and Serratia marcescens from 3 fetuses. Neither panophthalmitis nor pericarditis was seen. The abortifacient component of the ETCs was not elucidated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings suggest that mares with fetuses from 40 to 120 days of gestation should not be exposed to ETCs because they may induce abortion. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 225:717–721)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Records of 6 horses with pericarditis were reviewed. Septic pericarditis was suspected in all horses, based on historic and clinical findings. In horses 1, 2, and 4, cytologic examination of the pericardial effusion revealed acute inflammation with severe neutrophil degeneration. In horses 3 and 5, cytologic examination of pericardial fluid revealed subacute inflammation with degenerated neutrophils, and in horse 6, chronic active inflammation, with well preserved neutrophils. In horses 1 and 3, bacteria were identified on cytologic examination of pericardial fluid. Results of microbiologic cultures of pericardial fluid were positive in horse 3. All horses were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. An indwelling pericardial catheter was used to lavage and directly administer antibiotics into the pericardial sac. Horses 1, 4, 5, and 6 survived, horse 2 died of unrelated causes, and horse 3 was euthanatized at the owner's request. Surviving horses returned to athletic performance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical characteristics, procedural techniques, complications, and outcomes of dogs and cats undergoing any of the following modified hemipelvectomy techniques: concurrent partial sacrectomy and/or partial vertebrectomy, osseous excision crossing midline, and reconstruction without the use of local musculature.

ANIMALS

23 client-owned animals (20 dogs and 3 cats) that underwent modified hemipelvectomy techniques. Animals that underwent traditional (nonmodified) hemipelvectomy techniques were excluded.

PROCEDURES

The medical records of 3 academic institutions were reviewed, and data were recorded and analyzed.

RESULTS

Modified hemipelvectomy was performed with partial sacrectomy and/or vertebrectomy in 11 dogs, excision crossing pelvic midline with concurrent limb amputation in 5 dogs and 2 cats, and closure without use of native muscle or mesh in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Surgery was performed for tumor excision in all cases. Excision was reported as complete in 16 of 23, incomplete in 6 of 23, and not recorded in 1 of 23 animals. All animals survived to discharge. Only animals undergoing partial sacrectomy/vertebrectomy (4/11) experienced postoperative mobility concerns. Major intra- or post-operative complications (grades 3 and 4) occurred in 2 dogs that underwent partial sacrectomy/vertebrectomy, and 1 of these animals experienced a complication that resulted in death. The median time to death or last follow-up was 251 days (range, 3 to 1,642).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The modified hemipelvectomy techniques reported in this cohort were overall well tolerated with good functional outcomes. These findings support the use of these modified hemipelvectomy techniques in dogs and cats, and previous notions regarding tolerable hemipelvectomy procedures should be reconsidered. However, additional studies with larger numbers of patients undergoing modified hemipelvectomy techniques are needed to gain more information.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To evaluate pharmacokinetics of a high dose of gentamicin administered IV or IM to horses.

Design—

Repeated-measures study.

Animals—

6 clinically normal female adult stock-type horses.

Procedure—

All horses were given gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg [3 mg/lb] of body weight), IV and IM, in a two-way cross-over design. Serum gentamicin concentrations were measured during a 24-hour period.

Results—

Plasma concentration curves were consistent with a two-compartment model. Maximum plasma gentamicin concentrations were 71.9 ± 15.7 μg/ml (0 hours after injection) and 22.0 ± 4.9 μg/ml (1.31 hours after injection) for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) was 116.6 ± 14.5 and 116.3 ± 14.6 μg•h/ml for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Elimination half-life for the IV group was 3.0 ± 2.8 hours. Trough concentrations were < 2 μg/ml for > 15 and > 12 hours for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Significant changes were not detected in clinicopathologic variables before and after administration of gentamicin.

Clinical Implications—

Administration of a high dose of gentamicin IV or IM resulted in peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and minimum trough plasma concentrations. Results indicate once-daily administration of gentamicin might be as efficacious and safe as multiple-dose daily administration in accordance with traditional low-dose regimens, similar to those used in other species. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:1007-1011)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association