Objective—To determine whether gavage of pregnant
mares (housed without access to pasture) with
starved eastern tent caterpillars (ETCs) or their excreta
is associated with early fetal loss (EFL), panophthalmitis,
Design—Randomized clinical trial.
Procedure—15 mares with fetuses from 40 to 80
days of gestation (dGa) were randomly assigned to
1 of 3 groups and received 2.5 g of ETC excreta, 50
g of starved ETCs, or 500 mL of water, respectively,
once daily for 10 days. Mares were housed in
box stalls, walked twice daily, and not allowed
access to pasture for 12 days before or during the
Results—4 of 5 mares gavaged with starved ETCs
(group 2) aborted on trial days 8 (2 mares), 10, and
13. No control mares or mares that received excreta
aborted. Differences between the ETC group and
other groups were significant. Abortion occurred on
49, 64, 70, and 96 dGa. Allantoic fluids became
hyperechoic the day before or the day of fetal death.
Alpha streptococci were recovered from 1 fetus and
Serratia marcescens from 3 fetuses. Neither
panophthalmitis nor pericarditis was seen. The abortifacient
component of the ETCs was not elucidated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings
suggest that mares with fetuses from 40 to 120 days
of gestation should not be exposed to ETCs because
they may induce abortion. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;
Objective—To determine whether omeprazole oral
paste administered at a dosage of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg
(0.23 or 0.45 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours would effectively
prevent the recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses
in race training.
Procedures—Horses with gastric ulcers were treated
with omeprazole at a dosage of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb),
PO, every 24 hours for 28 days. Horses in the dose
selection portion of the study were sham dose treated
or received 0.5 or 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for an additional 28 days. Horses in
the dose confirmation portion of the study were sham
dose treated or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for an additional 28 days. Gastric
ulcers were scored before and after the preventive
phase of the study (day 28 to day 56) via gastroscopy,
and ulcer scores were compared.
Results—Sham–dose-treated horses and horses
receiving 0.5 mg of omeprazole/kg had significantly
higher ulcer scores than did horses receiving 1 mg of
omeprazole/kg. There was a significant difference
between the proportion of horses receiving 1 mg of
omeprazole/kg (38/48 [79%]) that remained ulcer free
and the proportion of sham–dose-treated horses
(7/44 [16%]) that remained ulcer free.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omeprazole
oral paste administered at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for 28 days was effective for prevention
of recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses in race
training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1685–1688)
Objective—To determine outcome for dogs with
grade-II mast cell tumors treated with surgery alone.
Procedures—Medical records were examined, and
signalment; location and size of tumor; staging status;
dates of local recurrence, metastasis, death, or last
follow-up examination; status of surgical margins; previous
surgery; postoperative complications; and
cause of death were recorded. Follow-up information
was obtained via reexamination or telephone conversations
with owners or referring veterinarians.
Univariate analysis was performed to identify prognostic
Results—60 tumors in 55 dogs were included.
Median follow-up time was 540 days. Three (5%)
mast cell tumors recurred locally; median time to local
recurrence was 62 days. Six (11%) dogs developed
another mast cell tumor at a different cutaneous location;
median time to a different location was 240 days.
Three (5%) dogs developed metastases; median time
to metastasis was 158 days. Fourteen dogs died; 3
deaths were related to mast cell tumor, and 7 were
unrelated. The relationship with mast cell tumor was
not known for 4. Median survival times were 151,
841, and 827 days, respectively, for these 3 groups.
Forty-six (84%) dogs were free of mast cell tumors
during the study period. A reliable prognostic factor
could not be identified.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that additional local treatment may not be required
after complete excision of grade-II mast cell tumors
and that most dogs do not require systemic treatment.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1120–1123)
Objective—To create a mathematical model to assist in early prediction of the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals ≤ 7 days old.
Study Design—Prospective study.
Procedures—Medical records from 910 hospitalized foals ≤ 7 days old for which outcome was recorded as died or discharged alive were reviewed. Thirty-four variables including historical information, physical examination findings, and laboratory results were examined for association with survival. Variables associated with being discharged alive were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Accuracy of the model was validated prospectively on data from 163 foals.
Results—Factors in the final model included age group, ability to stand, presence of a suckle reflex, WBC count, serum creatinine concentration, and anion gap. Sensitivity and specificity of the model to predict live discharge were 92% and 74%, respectively, in the retrospective population and 90% and 46%, respectively, in the prospective population. Accuracy of an equine clinician's initial prediction of the foal being discharged alive was 83%, and accuracy of the model's prediction was 81%. Combining the clinician's prediction of probability of live discharge with that of the model significantly increased (median increase, 12%) the accuracy of the prediction for foals that were discharged and nonsignificantly decreased (median decrease, 9%) the accuracy of the predication for nonsurvivors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Combining the clinician's initial predication of the probability of a foal being discharged alive with that of the model appeared to provide a more precise early estimate of the probability of live discharge for hospitalized foals.
Objective—To determine the minimal effective
dosage of omeprazole oral paste for the prevention of
naturally occurring ulcers in horses starting race training.
Procedure—Horses in the dose selection portion of
the study were sham dose treated or received 1 mg
(0.45 mg/lb) or 2 mg (0.9 mg/lb) of omeprazole/kg,
PO, every 24 hours for 28 days or 4 mg of omeprazole/
kg (1.8 mg/lb; loading dose), PO, every 24 hours
for 4 days, then 1 or 2 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for 24 days. Horses in the dose confirmation
portion of the study were sham dose treated
or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24
hours for 28 days. Gastric ulcer scores at the beginning
and end of the study were compared.
Results—Sham–dose-treated horses had significantly
higher ulcer scores than did horses treated with any
of the omeprazole dosages evaluated. Among horses
treated with omeprazole, there was no significant
interaction of dose (1 or 2 mg/kg) and loading dose;
therefore, the lowest effective dose (1 mg/kg) was
evaluated in the dose confirmation portion of the
study. In the dose confirmation study, 4 of 39 (10%)
sham–dose-treated horses remained ulcer free,
which was significantly different from the proportion
of horses (31/38 [82%]) receiving 1 mg of omeprazole/
kg that remained ulcer free.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that omeprazole administered at a dosage of
1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 28 days was effective
for prevention of gastric ulcers in horses starting race
training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1681–1684)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential associations between surgical approach and complication rate, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time in cats with mammary adenocarcinoma.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 107 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES Medical records of cats that underwent surgical excision of mammary adenocarcinoma by means of a unilateral or bilateral (staged or single-session) mastectomy at 9 hospitals between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed. Relevant clinicopathologic data and details of surgical and adjuvant treatments were recorded. Outcome data were obtained, including postoperative complications, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time.
RESULTS Complications occurred in 12 of 61 (19.7%) cats treated with unilateral mastectomy, 5 of 14 (35.7%) cats treated with staged bilateral mastectomy, and 13 of 32 (40.6%) cats treated with single-session bilateral mastectomy. Complications were significantly more likely to occur in cats undergoing bilateral versus unilateral mastectomy. Median progression-free survival time was longer for cats treated with bilateral mastectomy (542 days) than for cats treated with unilateral mastectomy (289 days). Significant risk factors for disease progression included unilateral mastectomy, tumor ulceration, lymph node metastasis, and tumors arising in the fourth mammary gland. Significant risk factors for disease-specific death included lymph node metastasis and development of regional or distant metastasis. Among cats that did not develop metastasis, unilateral mastectomy was a significant risk factor for disease-specific death. Treatment with chemotherapy was associated with a significantly decreased risk of disease-specific death.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported bilateral mastectomy for the treatment of mammary adenocarcinoma in cats to improve progression-free and disease-specific survival time. Performing bilateral mastectomy in a staged fashion may help to decrease the complication rate.
Objective—To identify risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) among horses examined at 11 equine referral hospitals.
Animals—183 horses with EPM, 297 horses with neurologic disease other than EPM (neurologic controls), and 168 horses with non-neurologic diseases (non-neurologic controls) examined at 11 equine referral hospitals in the United States.
Procedures—A study data form was completed for all horses. Data were compared between the case group and each of the control groups by means of bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression.
Results—Relative to neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be ≥ 2 years old and to have a history of cats residing on the premises. Relative to non-neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be used for racing or Western performance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats may play a role in the natural epidemiology of EPM, that the disease is less common among horses < 2 years of age relative to other neurologic diseases, and that horses used for particular types of competition may have an increased risk of developing EPM.