CASE DESCRIPTION An 18-month-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of conjunctivitis and skin-fold dermatitis secondary to bilateral microphthalmia, corneal dermoids, and ankyloblepharon.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed bilateral microphthalmia, bilaterally symmetrical corneal dermoids, ankyloblepharon, superior and inferior entropion, prognathism, and facial asymmetry with deviation of the nasal septum. Computed tomography revealed malformed, thickened bony orbits with mineralization of the orbital ligament bilaterally. Moderate rightward deviation of the nasal septum and ventral nasal meatus was also evident, with no identifiable maxillary sinuses. Results of MRI of the brain were unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasonography showed an irregularly marginated left kidney and a right kidney defect suggestive of chronic renal infarction. An abnormal, well-demarcated, focally thickened region of the muscularis externa of the jejunum was also evident.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Transpalpebral enucleation was performed bilaterally. Histologic examination of ocular tissues confirmed the corneal dermoids and microphthalmia with anterior and posterior segment dysgenesis and cataracts in both eyes. Ocular discomfort resolved after postoperative recovery, and follow-up revealed that the patient's activity level and quality of life were excellent. No clinical signs of upper respiratory, urinary, or gastrointestinal tract disease were observed during the approximately 3.5-year follow-up period.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE The congenital abnormalities observed resembled those described for human patients with Goldenhar syndrome, and the outcome of treatment was favorable. This report may prompt clinicians to consider this diagnosis when evaluating young cats with similar clinical signs.
To develop and assess a novel ex vivo corneal culture technique involving an agarose-based dome scaffold (ABDS) for use as a model of in vivo corneal wound healing in dogs and rabbits.
Corneas from clinically normal dogs (paired corneas from 8 dogs and 8 single corneas) and rabbits (21 single corneas).
8 single dog corneas (DCs), 1 DC from each pair, and 10 rabbit corneas (RCs) were wounded with an excimer laser; 1 DC from each pair and 11 RCs remained unwounded. Corneas were cultured for 21 days on ABDSs (8 pairs of DCs and all RCs) or on flat-topped scaffolds (8 single DCs). The surface area of corneal fluorescein retention was measured every 6 (DCs) or 12 (RCs) hours until full corneal epithelialization was detected. Changes in corneal clarity were evaluated at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days.
Median time to full epithelialization for wounded dog and rabbit corneas was 48 and 60 hours, respectively; among wounded DCs, time to full epithelization did not differ by scaffold type. After 21 days of culture on ABDSs, all DCs and RCs that epithelialized developed a circular, diffuse, cloud-like pattern of optical haze, whereas DCs cultured on flat-topped scaffolds developed a focal, crater-like region of optical haze. All corneas on the ABDSs maintained convex curvature throughout the study.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Wounded ex vivo DCs and RCs cultured on ABDSs reliably epithelialized, formed optical haze (consistent with in vivo wound healing), and maintained convex curvature. This culture technique may be adaptable to other species.