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Summary

Two Mackay-Marg tonometers and 2 Tono-Pen tonometers were evaluated in eyes in which intraocular pressure (iop) had been altered and measured by use of a manometer. Eyes of anesthetized dogs and enucleated horse eyes were used. Compared with the manometer, none of the tonometers accurately measured iop over the range between 0 and 100 mm of Hg. However at manometer measurements from 0 to 30 mm of Hg, several of the tonometers accurately measured iop. In addition, significant differences were observed when the measurement accuracy of one tonometer was compared with that of another, especially at high iop. Coefficient of determination (r 2) values for a linear model ranged from 0.979 to 0.991 in dogs, and from 0.982 to 0.996 in horse eyes.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In each of 5 groups of dogs, 0.05 ml of 1 of the following solutions was injected into the anterior chamber of both eyes: phosphate-buffered saline solution, 0.001 μg of prostaglandin F (pgf ), 0.01 μg of pgf , 0.1 μg of leukotriene D4(ltd 4), and 1 μg of ltd 4. A 10% solution of sodium fluorescein was injected iv (14 mg/kg of body weight) at the same time, and pupil size, intraocular pressure, and anterior chamber fluorescence were measured for 1 hour after injections. In a dose-dependent manner, pgf was a potent miotic. A significant effect on intraocular pressure was not detected when the groups given pgf were compared with the control group. When compared with ltd 4, pgf significantly (P < 0.05) increased the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier, as evidenced by increased fluorescein leakage into the anterior chamber. Leukotriene D4 caused a decrease in pupil size only at 5 minutes, compared with that of the control group. Intraocular pressure was greater (but not significantly) in the group given 1 μg of ltd 4.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Dogs were treated with flunixin meglumine, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; L-651,896, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor; and matrine, a herbal anti-inflammatory drug. Acute inflammation was induced in the eyes by disruption of the anterior lens capsule, using a neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser. Intraocular pressure, pupil diameter, and eicosanoid production in the aqueous humor were measured. Statistically significant effects were seen in the eyes of flunixin meglumine-treated dogs where mydriasis was maintained and aqueous prostaglandin E2 concentration was reduced.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—An 8-year-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of signs of depression, circling, and visual deficits.

Clinical Findings—The cat had no cutaneous lesions, and results of an ophthalmologic examination and thoracic radiography were within reference limits. Computed tomography of the brain revealed a mass lesion involving the right parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes; the mass was in broad-based contact with the skull and smoothly marginated and had strong homogenous enhancement after contrast agent administration. During craniectomy, samples of the mass were collected for cytologic and histopathologic evaluations and microbial culture. A diagnosis of Blastomyces dermatitidis—associated meningoencephalitis with secondary pyogranulomatous inflammation was made.

Treatment and Outcome—Amphotericin B (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb], IV) was administered on alternate days (cumulative dose, 1.75 mg/kg [0.8 mg/lb]). To minimize the risk of nephrotoxicosis, assessments of serum biochemical variables (urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations) and urinalyses were performed at intervals. The third dose of amphotericin B was postponed 48 hours because the cat became azotemic. The cat subsequently received fluconazole (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for 5.5 months. Six months after discontinuation of that treatment, the cat appeared healthy and had no signs of relapse.

Clinical Relevance—Brain infection with B dermatitidis is typically associated with widespread disseminated disease. The cat of this report had no evidence of systemic disease. Blastomycosis of the CNS should be considered as a differential diagnosis for brain lesions in cats from areas in which B dermatitidis is endemic.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association