Objective—To determine whether bulk-tank standard
plate counts or plate loop counts and bulk-tank
somatic cell counts (SCC) were associated with
detection of violative antimicrobial residues in milk
from dairy cattle.
Procedure—Information for 1994 through 1997 was
obtained from a large milk marketing cooperative that
operated in multiple states throughout the northeastern
and midwestern United States (16,831 herd-years
of information from 6,546 farms) and from the Ohio
Department of Agriculture Grade-A Milk Certification
Program (12,042 herd-years of information from 4,022
farms). Data were analyzed by use of multivariate
Results—For both data sets, odds that a violative
antibiotic residue would be detected increased as
mean SCC for the herd-year increased. Standard plate
counts and plate loop counts were not associated
with odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of
this study suggested that the odds that a violative
antibiotic residue would be found in bulk-tank milk
increased as mean SCC for the herd-year increased.
This suggests that management practices that would
be expected to influence SCC may also influence the
risk of antibiotic residue violations. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To compare results of intradermal tests
(IDT) for environmental allergens at 30 minutes and 4,
6, and 24 hours after injection in horses without atopy
and horses with atopic dermatitis (AD) or recurrent
Animals—22 horses without atopy, 10 horses with
RU, and 7 horses with AD.
Procedure—In all horses, medical history was
obtained, and results of physical examination, hematologic
examination, serum biochemical analyses,
examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and IDT
with 73 allergens were examined.
Results—Horses with AD or RU had a significantly
greater mean number of positive reactions for IDT,
compared with horses without atopy. Horses with AD
had a significantly greater number of positive reactions
than horses without atopy in every allergen
group at all time periods, except for molds at 4 and 24
hours. Horses with RU had a significantly greater
number of positive reactions than horses without
atopy in every allergen group, except for molds at 30
minutes and 4 and 6 hours, trees at 4 and 6 hours,
and grasses at 4 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A significantly
greater number of positive reactions for IDT in horses
with AD or RU, compared with horses without
atopy, provides evidence of type-I IgE-mediated
hypersensitivity for these diseases. Evaluation of
results of IDT performed in horses with AD or RU is
useful in determining specific allergens for the formulation
of immunotherapy along with providing
identification of allergens that could be useful when
creating avoidance strategies. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine clinical findings and outcome in horses treated by means of a balloon constant rate infusion system.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of horses examined at The Ohio State University veterinary teaching hospital from 2002 to 2005 that had septic arthritis, septic tenosynovitis, or penetration of a synovial structure and in which treatment involved a balloon constant rate infusion system were searched. Information pertaining to signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, treatment, and duration of hospitalization was recorded.
Results—Mean ± SD duration of hospitalization was 11.5 ± 5.26 days. No correlation between duration of clinical signs and duration of hospitalization or duration of infusion pump use was detected, but correlations between WBC count and duration of hospitalization and WBC and duration of infusion-pump use were observed. All horses survived to discharge. Follow-up information was obtained on 17 horses, 16 of which were alive at the time of follow-up. Twelve of 13 horses for which followup information was available for at least 5 months were alive 5 months or longer after discharge. Thirteen of the 16 horses alive at follow-up were reported by owners as not lame, whereas the remaining 3 were mildly lame or intermittently moderately lame or had developed angular limb deformity in the contralateral limb.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Balloon constant rate infusion systems may be used effectively in treatment of septic arthritis, septic tenosynovitis, and contaminated synovial wounds. Clinical response and long-term outcome appeared to be comparable to results obtained with other techniques.
OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with keratopathy in captive pinnipeds and to provide guidance for preventive measures.
ANIMALS 319 captive pinnipeds (229 otariids [sea lions and fur seals], 74 phocids [true seals], and 16 odobenids [walrus]) from 25 facilities.
PROCEDURES Descriptive data collected from questionnaires completed by facilities and from medical records and physical examinations of pinnipeds were compiled and evaluated. Variables were assessed with χ2 tests of homogeneity to determine potential association with keratopathy, and variables with values of P ≤ 0.25 were inserted into the multivariable logistic regression model.
RESULTS Results indicated that variables associated with significantly increased odds of keratopathy in captive pinnipeds included lighter or reflective pool color (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 3.97), pool water salinity < 29 g/L (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.89 to 6.56), and history of eye disease (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.85 to 5.98), trauma (OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.89), and having been tested for leptospirosis (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.54 to 10.26). However, odds of keratopathy decreased with UV index ≤ 6 (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.72) and age < 20 years (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.66).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings indicated that odds of keratopathy in pinnipeds could be reduced by maintenance of pool water salinity ≥ 29 g/L and reduction of UV radiation exposure (eg, with adequate shade structures and use of darker, natural colors). Because UV radiation exposure is cumulative, even small attempts to reduce lifetime exposure to it could help control keratopathy in pinnipeds.
Objective—To compare responses to a variety of
intradermally injected allergens among healthy horses
and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD), recurrent urticaria (RU), and atopic dermatitis-insect hypersensitivity (allergic dermatitis
Procedure—Results of intradermal testing for horses
with COPD, RU, or AD were compared with results
for healthy horses.
Results—Compared with healthy horses, horses with
COPD, RU, and AD were significantly more likely to
have positive (≥ 3+) reactions to intradermal allergens
(molds, weeds, trees, grasses-crops, and insects) 30
minutes (immediate reaction), 4 hours (late-phase
reactions), and 24 hours (delayed-phase reactions)
after exposure. In addition, diseased horses reacted
to a significantly higher number of allergens in each
allergen group than did healthy horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reactions to
individual allergens should not be used to determine
that horses have hypersensitivity. Overall patterns of
reactivity to intradermal allergens may be helpful in
management when used in conjunction with a compatible
history and evidence of potential exposure to
allergens in horses with conditions associated with
hypersensitivity to environmental allergens. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;62:1115–1121)
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent of environmental exposure to heteroxenous coccidia from wild canid feces in southeastern Ohio.
SAMPLE 285 presumed wild canid fecal samples collected across an ecological system in southeastern Ohio.
PROCEDURES Morphological classification and molecular analysis were used to determine the canid genus for collected fecal samples. Microscopic and molecular analysis were used to detect coccidian oocysts and DNA. Several variables were analyzed for associations with coccidian DNA detection or prevalence.
RESULTS Coccidian DNA was detected in 51 of 285 (17.9%) fecal samples. Of those positive samples, 1% (95% confidence interval, 0.4% to 3%) had positive results for Hammondia heydorni and none had positive results for Neospora caninum, for an estimated environmental N caninum prevalence of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0% to 7%)/1-km2 hexagonal area evaluated. Morphological classification revealed that 78.9% (225/285) of fecal samples were from coyotes and 17.2% (49/285) were from foxes. No difference in proportions of coccidian DNA-positive fecal samples was identified among canid species. Environmental temperature and fecal freshness were associated with coccidian DNA detection. Land use type, relative canid density, and cattle density were not associated with the prevalence of coccidian DNA-positive samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The low prevalence of coccidia shed in wild canid feces in this study, including the estimated 0% environmental prevalence of N caninum, suggested that the role of the oocyst environmental phase in coccidia transmission to ruminants is likely minor in rural southeastern Ohio.
Objective—To evaluate effect of adjunctive treatment with tetracycline analogues on time to complete corneal reepithelialization in dogs with nonhealing (ie, refractory) corneal ulcers.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—89 dogs with refractory corneal ulcers.
Procedures—Corneal ulcers were treated via debridement and grid keratotomy. Dogs were assigned to receive 1 of 3 treatment regimens for up to 6 weeks: doxycycline (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) with topically applied ophthalmic ointment containing neomycin, polymyxin B, and bacitracin (ie, triple antibiotic ointment; q 8 h); cephalexin (22 mg/kg [10 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) with topically applied oxytetracycline ophthalmic ointment (q 8 h); or a control treatment of cephalexin (22 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) with topically applied triple antibiotic ointment (q 8 h). Healing was monitored via measurements of the wound with calipers and evaluation of photographs obtained every 2 weeks. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by wound healing and decreased signs of pain.
Results—The Boxer breed was overrepresented in all groups. At the 2-week time point, wound healing was significantly more common in small-breed dogs, compared with large-breed dogs. Dogs treated with oxytetracycline ophthalmic ointment had a significantly shorter healing time than did dogs receiving the control treatment. Corneal ulcers in dogs that received doxycycline PO healed more rapidly than did ulcers in dogs in the control treatment group; however, this difference was not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical tetracycline ophthalmic ointment was a safe, inexpensive, and effective adjunctive treatment for refractory corneal ulcers in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate sensitivities at the herd level
of test strategies used in the Voluntary Johne's
Disease Herd Status Program (VJDHSP) and alternative
test strategies for detecting dairy cattle herds
infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
Design—Nonrandom cross-sectional study.
Sample Population—64 dairy herds from
Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Colorado, Ohio, and
Wisconsin. Fifty-six herds had at least 1 cow shedding
M paratuberculosis in feces; the other 8 herds
were free from paratuberculosis.
Procedure—For all adult cows in each herd, serum
samples were tested for antibodies to M paratuberculosis with
an ELISA, and fecal samples were submitted
for bacterial culture for M paratuberculosis. Sensitivities
at the herd level (probability of detecting infected herd)
of various testing strategies were then evaluated.
Results—Sensitivity at the herd level of the testing
strategy used in level 1 of the VJDHSP (use of the
ELISA to test samples from 30 cows followed by confirmatory
bacterial culture of feces from cows with
positive ELISA result) ranged from 33 to 84% for
infected herds, depending on percentage of cows in
the herd with positive bacterial culture results. If follow-
up bacterial culture was not used to confirm positive
ELISA results, sensitivity ranged from 70 to
93%, but probability of identifying uninfected herds
as infected was 89%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that the testing strategy used in the VJDHSP will
fail to identify as infected most dairy herds with a low
prevalence of paratuberculosis. A higher percentage
of infected herds was detected if follow-up bacterial
culture was not used, but this test strategy was associated
with a high probability of misclassifying uninfected
herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220: 1053–1057)
Objective—To determine risk factors for lens luxation and cataracts in captive pinnipeds in the United States and the Bahamas.
Animals—111 pinnipeds (99 California sea lions [Zalophus californianus], 10 harbor seals [Phoca vitulina], and 2 walruses [Odobenus rosmarus]) from 9 facilities.
Procedures—Eyes of each pinniped were examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist for the presence of cataracts or lens luxations and photographed. Information detailing husbandry practices, history, and facilities was collected with a questionnaire, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed for continuous and categorical variables. Odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated from the final model.
Results—Risk factors for lens luxation, cataracts, or both included age ≥ 15 years, history of fighting, history of ocular disease, and insufficient access to shade.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diseases of the lens commonly affect captive pinnipeds. Access to UV-protective shade, early identification and medical management of ocular diseases, and prevention of fighting can limit the frequency or severity of lens-related disease in this population. An extended life span may result from captivity, but this also allows development of pathological changes associated with aging, including cataracts.