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  • Author or Editor: William A. Lindsay x
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Summary

Intestinal ischemia was induced and maintained for 60 minutes in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 175 to 225 g. Prior to reperfusion, the following drugs were administered via the caudal vena cava: 0.9% NaCl (0.5 ml), superoxide dismutase (sod; 1,000 IU/kg of body weight), polyethylene glycol-conjugated sod (peg-sod; 1,000 IU/kg), or the 21-aminosteroids, U74006F (3 mg/kg) or U78715G (3 mg/kg). A sham-operated control group was included. Animals from each group were euthanatized at 5 periods of reperfusion: 5 minutes, 30 minutes, 18 hours, 3 days, and 7 days after reperfusion. Fixed tissues were embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm, and stained with H&E. Villi profiled in cross section were measured from the crypt villus junction to the tip of the villus. The mean villus height for each rat was calculated and compared by two-way anova to determine the effects of time and treatment.

Villus height was maintained after 30 minutes of reperfusion in rats of the sham- and U74006F-treated groups; U78715G and sod treatment attentuated the loss in villus height, and villus height was not maintained in the peg-sod- and 0.9% NaCl-treated rats. In all rats, villus height was comparable to, or was greater than villus height in sham-operated controls by 18 hours after reperfusion in all animals and remained constant through 7 days.

Administration of the 21-aminosteroids maintained villus height after ischemia and reperfusion. Treatment with peg-sod did not maintain villus height to the degree observed in rats treated with sod.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the efficacy of canine vaginal impedometry in identifying the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) peak to that of currently used methods (serum progesterone concentration measurement, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginoscopy).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—12 sexually intact female dogs.

Procedures—12 mature postpubertal Beagle (n = 3), Beagle-cross (2), and hound-cross (7) bitches ranging from 7.5 to 27.5 kg (16.5 to 60.6 lb) were enrolled in the study. After the onset of spontaneous proestrus, determined on the basis of appearance of serosanguineous vaginal discharge, serum progesterone assays, vaginoscopy, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginal impedometry were performed daily until approximately 4 days after peak LH concentration (day 0) as measured by radioimmunoassay. Vaginal impedometry was compared against serum progesterone concentration measurement, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginoscopy as a method for accurately identifying the LH peak and therefore the optimal breeding time. Ten of 12 bitches were bred with subsequent assessment of embryos.

Results—Vaginal impedometry accurately predicted the preovulatory LH peak in 5 of 11 bitches. One bitch was removed from the study because data were not collected. Of the remaining 11 bitches, 6 had their LH peak on the day serum progesterone concentration first exceeded 2 ng/mL. Crenulation scores reached 1 (mean, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.7) on day 0 as expected; however, these scores were not significantly different from those on days −1 or 1. Vaginal epithelial cell populations did not change noticeably on day 0. Nine of the 10 bitches that were bred produced viable embryos.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that daily use of vaginal impedometry in bitches was unreliable as a method for monitoring periovulatory events. All techniques evaluated (ie vaginal impedometry, serum progesterone concentration assays, vaginoscopy and vaginal cytologic evaluation) frequently produced inaccurate results when used individually. Multiple methods should be used to identify optimal breeding time in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To test the hypothesis that cats are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum.

Animals

6 weaned male kittens obtained from 2 sources, and several dozen outbred mice.

Procedure

Cats were fed large numbers of 3 strains of N caninum: tissue cysts in buffered saline solution, mouse brain homogenates, and whole carcass homogenates from seropositive mice. Fecal specimens were examined for 4 weeks by use of flotation tests, and bioassays were performed in mice. One cat was inoculated parenterally with tachyzoites, to determine whether cats could respond serologically to N caninum. Tissue cysts from portions of oral inocula were cultured to verify viability. Indirect fluorescent antibody serologic testing, histologic and immunohistologic examinations, cell culture, and polymerase chain reaction procedures were performed 4 to 8 weeks after oral exposure, to seek evidence of infection of cats and mice.

Results

None of the cats or mice seroconverted to N caninum, with the exception of the single cat inoculated parenterally. Fecal shedding of oocysts was not observed, except for Isospora felis oocysts that were shed by 2 cats beginning prior to oral challenge exposure. Evidence of infection was not detected in tissues of cats or mice, with the exception of the parenterally inoculated cat.

Conclusions

The hypothesis that cats are definitive hosts of N caninum is not supported.

Clinical Relevance

Extermination of cats in efforts to control bovine neosporosis is not warranted. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:441–444)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine plasma pharmacokinetics of penciclovir following oral and rectal administration of famciclovir to young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

Animals—6 healthy Asian elephants (5 females and 1 male), 4.5 to 9 years old and weighing 1,646 to 2,438 kg.

Procedures—Famciclovir was administered orally or rectally in accordance with an incomplete crossover design. Three treatment groups, each comprising 4 elephants, received single doses of famciclovir (5 mg/kg, PO, or 5 or 15 mg/kg, rectally); there was a minimum 12-week washout period between subsequent famciclovir administrations. Serial blood samples were collected after each administration. Samples were analyzed for famciclovir and penciclovir with a validated liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy assay.

Results—Famciclovir was tolerated well for both routes of administration and underwent complete biotransformation to the active metabolite, penciclovir. Mean maximum plasma concentration of penciclovir was 1.3 μg/mL at 1.1 hours after oral administration of 5 mg/kg. Similar results were detected after rectal administration of 5 mg/kg. Mean maximum plasma concentration was 3.6 μg/mL at 0.66 hours after rectal administration of 15 mg/kg; this concentration was similar to results reported for humans receiving 7 mg/kg orally.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Juvenile Asian elephants are susceptible to elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus. Although most infections are fatal, case reports indicate administration of famciclovir has been associated with survival of 3 elephants. In Asian elephants, a dose of 8 to 15 mg of famciclovir/kg given orally or rectally at least every 8 hours may result in penciclovir concentrations that are considered therapeutic in humans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research