Perform a cadaveric experimental pilot study to measure and compare potential radiation exposure to an orthopedic surgeon from 2 different-generation mini C-arm models during a simulated orthopedic surgery.
16 radiation dosimeters.
Mock surgery setups were constructed with a canine cadaver thoracic limb and 2 different-generation mini C-arm models. Four radiation dosimeters were placed near the mini C-arm to mimic common locations of radiation exposure during image acquisition. One mini C-arm was placed in auto technique mode, and 100 static images were acquired. The dosimeters were replaced, and a 5-minute-long dynamic image was acquired. The same protocols were repeated for the second mini C-arm. The dosimetry badges were then submitted for radiation exposure quantification.
All but 1 dosimeter had radiation exposure levels below the detectable limits of the dosimeter. The dosimeter closest to the primary x-ray beam of 1 mini C-arm during dynamic image acquisition had a reading of 1 mrem.
Intraoperative radiation exposure from the mini C-arm is low, specifically to areas not protected by lead and in close proximity to the primary x-ray beam. That being said, surgeons should always practice the principles of ALARA (ie, as low as reasonably achievable) to minimize radiation exposure in the workplace.
To describe clinical findings and survival times for dogs with functional thyroid tumors treated with surgery alone and investigate potential prognostic factors for outcome in these patients.
27 client-owned dogs.
Medical records of 9 institutions were reviewed to identify dogs with hyperthyroidism secondary to thyroid neoplasia that were treated with surgery alone between 2005 and 2015. Data collected included signalment, hematologic and physical examination findings, tumor staging results, time from diagnosis to treatment, surgical procedure performed, histologic findings, evidence of recurrence or metastatic disease, and date of death or last follow-up. Median survival time and 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Associations between variables of interest and the outcome of death were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Dogs from 8 institutions met inclusion criteria. Median age at diagnosis was 10 years (range, 8 to 13 years). Golden Retrievers and Labrador Retrievers were commonly represented (5 dogs each). Polyuria with polydipsia (15/27 [56%]) and weight loss (12 [44%]) were the most common clinical signs; 2 dogs without clinical signs had hyperthyroidism identified by routine hematologic analysis. One dog had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Most tumors (23/27 [85%]) were malignant. Estimated median survival time was 1,072 days. No significant prognostic factors were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Dogs with resectable functional thyroid tumors had a good prognosis with surgical excision alone. Survival times for these dogs were similar to those in previous studies that included dogs with nonfunctional thyroid tumors.