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  • Author or Editor: Whitney A. Mauer x
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Objective—To determine the effect of 2 doses of metoclopramide on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in anesthetized dogs.

Animals—52 healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery.

Procedure—In this prospective clinical study, dogs were evaluated before and during orthopedic surgery. The anesthetic protocol used was standardized to include administration of acepromazine, morphine, thiopental, and isoflurane. Dogs were randomly selected to receive an infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, a low dose of metoclopramide, or a high dose of metoclopramide before and during anesthesia. Treatment groups were similar with respect to age, body weight, duration of food withholding before surgery, duration of surgery, and dose of thiopental administered. Dogs were positioned in dorsal recumbency during surgery. A sensor-tipped catheter was inserted to measure esophageal pH during anesthesia. We defined GER as a decrease in esophageal pH to < 4 or an increase to > 7.5 that lasted more than 30 seconds.

Results—The high dose of metoclopramide (bolus loading dose of 1.0 mg/kg, IV, followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 1.0 mg/kg/h) was associated with a 54% reduction in relative risk of developing GER. The low dose did not significantly affect the incidence of GER.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of metoclopramide by bolus and constant rate infusion at doses much higher than commonly used will reduce the incidence but not totally prevent GER in anesthetized dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To quantify the density of primary epidermal laminae (PELs) around the solar circumference and evaluate the relationship between regional PEL density and hoof capsule morphology in horses.

Sample Population—Forefeet from nine 3-year-old Quarter Horse cadavers.

Procedures—Data pertaining to gross features of hoof morphology and PEL variables, including number, density, and distribution patterns around the perimeter of the hoof wall and number of bar PELs, were collected. Tissues of the laminar junction were examined histologically.

Results—No significant differences were found between left and right forefeet with respect to gross hoof morphologic measurements. Mean ± SD number of PELs, including those at the bars of the hoof, was 551 ± 30. Primary epidermal laminar density in the toe was significantly higher, compared with that in the quarter and heel regions, and was higher on the lateral aspect of the foot, compared with the medial aspect. Feet were significantly wider on the lateral aspect of the foot, compared with the medial aspect, as measured across the widest point of the solar surface. Histologic examination revealed atypical laminar morphology at the toe.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Variations were detected in PEL density and morphology around the solar circumference of hooves from 3-year-old racing Quarter Horses. A better understanding of relationships between laminar density, laminar morphology, and gross morphology of the hoof capsule in different populations of horses may aid practitioners in diagnosis and treatment of disease involving the hoof wall in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify stakeholders who should be included in a Michigan-based avian influenza surveillance system (AISS) and to describe their avian influenza (AI) surveillance and reporting needs.

Design—Cross-sectional survey involving a convenience sample of respondents.

Sample—272 federal, state, and local governmental and regulatory agency professionals; veterinarians and laboratory professionals in academia; private practice veterinarians; and poultry industry members.

Procedures—A needs assessment survey that focused on stakeholder identification, current surveillance methods, information sharing, and desired AISS enhancements was administered by mail, and responses were summarized.

Results—Various AISS stakeholders were identified, among whom the requirements for surveillance information and methods of reporting (including via a World Wide Web-based database, e-mail, and a website) differed. Although 90% of all respondent types indicated that poultry industry representatives were key stakeholders, < 33% of poultry industry respondents indicated that private practice veterinarians and personnel in laboratories or public agencies should be considered stakeholders. The predominant concern (55.4% of respondents) regarding the current AISS was the effectiveness of communication among agencies, industry, and the public. The primary challenge identified by respondents was confidentiality (30.2% of respondents).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Michigan—and potentially in other regions of the United States—integration of Internet-related data systems and stakeholder communication is likely to promote earlier identification of AI, achieve more effective responses to outbreaks, reduce morbidity among humans and other animals, and decrease outbreak-associated financial losses. Stakeholder education and technological safeguard assurances will be essential in AISS enhancement.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the effects of nephrotomy on renal function in clinically normal cats.

Animals—20 specific-pathogen-free, 9- to 11-month old female mixed-breed cats.

Procedure—Serum chemistry analyses, CBC determinations, urinalyses, microbiologic urine cultures, renal ultrasonography, abdominal radiography, and single-kidney and total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determinations by use of renal scintigraphy and measurements of plasma disappearance of technetium 99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid were performed before surgery and at 3, 12, 26, 52, and 78 weeks after surgery in 10 cats that underwent unilateral nephrotomy and in 10 control cats that underwent a sham surgical procedure.

Results—Two cats (1 from each group) did not complete the study, and their data were eliminated from analyses. Unilateral nephrotomy resulted in a 10% to 20% reduction in mean single-kidney GFR, compared with that of nephrotomy contralateral control kidneys. However, mean total GFR in nephrotomy-group cats was not significantly different from that of shamgroup cats. Over the 78 weeks of study, mean total GFR declined 34% and 40% in nephrotomy- and sham-group cats, respectively. Adverse events associated with nephrotomy included persistent microscopic hematuria, renal pelvis hyperechogenicity with distant shadowing on ultrasonographic evaluation, dilatation of renal pelves, and hydronephrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nephrotomy in normal functioning feline kidneys results in a modest relative reduction in renal function, compared with contralateral kidney controls, but has minimal effect on total GFR when compared with sham-operated control cats. However, any detrimental effects of nephrotomy may be magnified in cats with diseased kidneys, which may have little or no capacity for repair or compensation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1400–1407)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research