Objective—To determine the serologic and bacteriologic culture prevalence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in sheep and goats and the value of such assays for prediction of future development of caseous lymphadenitis (CL).
Animals—919 goats and sheep in 3 herds in southwest Texas.
Procedures—During an initial evaluation, serologic and bacteriologic culture status for CL was determined for all animals. Subsequently, animals were evaluated every 6 months for a 13-month period to detect external CL lesions. Affected animals in 2 herds were treated with tulathromycin or a control treatment; affected animals in 1 herd were culled. The value of assays for prediction of future development of CL lesions was determined.
Results—The serologic prevalence of CL in herds at the start of the study ranged from 7.52% to 69.54%. The bacteriologic culture prevalence of CL ranged from 0% to 6.12% at the start of the study and 0% to 9.56% at the end of the study. Synergistic hemolysin inhibition results were poor predictors of future development of CL lesions in animals during the study period; however, animals with positive bacteriologic culture results for CL were more likely to develop lesions in the future than were animals with negative bacteriologic culture results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caseous lymphadenitis was detected in animals in this study despite prior management of affected animals in herds via culling. Use of a synergistic hemolysin inhibition test for management of CL may cause unnecessary culling of animals; treatment might allow retention of genetically valuable CL-affected animals in a herd without substantially increasing the prevalence of CL.
Objective—To determine results of ultrasound-guided cystocentesis and percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution for treatment of male goats with urolithiasis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—25 male goats with urolithiasis treated with Walpole's solution.
Procedures—Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, degree of urethral obstruction (partial vs complete), pertinent examination findings, concurrent illnesses, diet, other treatments administered, duration of hospitalization, whether the obstruction resolved, and outcome (ie, discharged vs euthanized).
Results—14 (58%) animals had complete urethral obstruction, and 10 (42%) had partial obstruction (degree of urethral patency was not recorded in 1 animal). Walpole's solution was infused once in 18 (72%) animals, twice in 6 (24%) animals, and 3 times in 1 (4%) animal. The amount of Walpole's solution required to achieve the target urine pH of 4 to 5 ranged from 50 to 250 mL. In 20 (80%) goats, the urethral obstruction resolved, and the goat was discharged. The remaining 5 (20%) goats were euthanized because of unresolved urethral obstruction. Six of the 20 (30%) goats that were discharged were reexamined because of recurrence of urethral obstruction.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ultrasound-guided cystocentesis in combination with percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution may be a useful treatment in male goats with obstructive urolithiasis.
Objective—To determine risk factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome (NCS) in horses.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—242 horses referred for endoscopic evaluation of the upper portion of the respiratory tract (121 horses with NCS and 121 control horses).
Procedures—Medical records of horses that had an endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway performed between January 2003 and December 2008 were reviewed. Signalment, housing management, and season of evaluation were recorded and reviewed for each horse. The associations between clinical signs and endoscopic findings were evaluated by the use of a prospective logistic model that included a Bayesian method for inference.
Results—Breed and sex had no significant effect on the risk of having NCS. The risk that a horse had NCS increased significantly with age. Exclusive housing in a stall was protective against the development of NCS. In addition, the amount of pasture turnout had a dose-related effect, with exclusive pasture turnout positively correlated with increased risk of developing NCS, compared with a mixture of pasture turnout and stall confinement. Horses were significantly more likely to be evaluated because of clinical signs of the syndrome during the warm months of the year.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The risk factors for NCS identified in this study may support chronic environmental exposure to an irritant or infectious agent as the cause of NCS. Information gained from this study should be useful for investigating the cause of NCS.
Objective—To compare the effectiveness of 3 treatment regimens for small ruminants with caseous lymphadenitis.
Design—Randomized clinical trial.
Animals—44 client-owned sheep and goats.
Procedures—Aspirates were obtained from 48 lesions of 44 enrolled animals and submitted for bacterial culture. Animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups. Treatment for group A (n = 15 lesions) consisted of opening, draining, and flushing the lesions and SC administration of procaine penicillin G. Treatment for group B (n = 15 lesions) consisted of closed-system lavage and intralesional administration of tulathromycin. Treatment for group C (n = 18 lesions) consisted of closed-system lavage and SC administration of tulathromycin. All animals were reexamined approximately 1 month after treatment, unless treatment failure was detected prior to that time.
Results—43 animals with lesions had positive results (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis) for bacterial culture. Proportions of lesions that had resolution of infection by 1 month after treatment did not differ significantly among the treatment groups (group A, 13/14 [92.9%]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 69.5% to 99.6%; group B, 10/12 [83.3%]; 95% CI, 54.9% to 97.1%; and group C, 14/17 [82.4%]; 95% CI, 59.1% to 95.3%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acceptable alternatives to opening, draining, and flushing of lesions may exist for treatment of sheep and goats with caseous lymphadenitis. Use of tulathromycin and penicillin in this study constituted extralabel drug use, which would require extended withholding times before milk or meat of treated sheep and goats can be sold for human consumption.