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  • Author or Editor: Wendy I. Baltzer x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess clinical effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and protein-enriched diet, physical rehabilitation, or both in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and arthroscopic surgery for cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease.

DESIGN Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 48 dogs with unilateral CCL disease.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a dry omega-3 fatty acid and protein-enriched dog food formulated to support joint health (test food [TF]), a dry food formulated for maintenance of adult dogs (control food [CF]), TF plus rehabilitation (TF-R), or CF plus rehabilitation (CF-R). Data collected over 6 months included body weight, body condition score, ground reaction force data, tibial plateau angle, limb circumference measurements, subjective pain and lameness scores assigned by surgeons and dog owners, and daily activity measured by accelerometry.

RESULTS Peak vertical force and vertical impulse were greater after surgery for dogs in the TF groups than in the CF groups; peak vertical force was greater after surgery in dogs that underwent rehabilitation than in those that did not. Owner scores indicated lower frequencies of lameness and signs of pain during some activities for the TF group, compared with other groups, and for the TF-R and CF-R groups, compared with the CF group. Sedentary time decreased and time spent in light-to-moderate or vigorous activity increased in all groups over time. Rehabilitation was significantly associated with greater time spent in light-to-moderate activity, regardless of diet.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the TF and providing physical rehabilitation during the first 6 months after TPLO were associated with improvements in some indices of clinical outcome and function in dogs. Significant interactions between time and some outcome variables were observed, indicating further research is warranted.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched diet, physical rehabilitation, or both on radiographic findings and markers of synovial inflammation in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and arthroscopic surgery for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease.

DESIGN Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 48 dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a dry omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched dog food formulated to support joint health (test food [TF]), a dry food formulated for adult canine maintenance (control food [CF]), TF plus rehabilitation, or CF plus rehabilitation after surgery. Synovial fluid prostaglandin (PG) E2 and interleukin-1β concentrations, radiographic osteoarthritis scores, osteotomy site healing, and patellar ligament thickness were assessed at predetermined time points up to 6 months after surgery.

RESULTS Dogs that received CF had significantly higher PGE2 concentrations over time following surgery than did dogs that received TF, regardless of rehabilitation status. Synovial fluid interleukin-1β concentrations did not change over time in any groups. Diet and rehabilitation were both associated with osteoarthritis scores, with significantly lower scores over time for dogs that received TF versus CF and for dogs that underwent rehabilitation versus those that did not. Proportions of dogs with complete osteotomy healing 8 and 24 weeks after surgery were significantly lower for dogs that received TF than for dogs that received CF, regardless of rehabilitation status.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that feeding the TF can result in lower synovial fluid PGE2 concentrations and that both the TF and rehabilitation can reduce progression of osteoarthritis in the 6 months following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy; clinical relevance of slower osteotomy healing in dogs fed the TF was unclear.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare in vitro mechanical properties of toggle pins and toggle rods used as suture anchors and of 3 suture materials (50-lb monofilament polybutester, No. 5 braided polyester, and 5-mm woven polyester) commonly used as prosthetic ligaments in the repair of hip joint luxation in dogs.

Sample Population—Femoropelvic specimens from the cadavers of 18 dogs.

Procedure—Suture anchors were compared by use of pullout tests. Suture materials were compared by use of monotonic and cyclic tensile tests; cyclic tensile tests were performed with the suture placed over the edge of an aluminum bar to simulate the edge of the femoral bone tunnel. In vitro mechanical properties of the ligament of the femoral head were determined by use of monotonic tensile tests, using boneligament-bone cadaveric specimens. The in vitro mechanical properties of the acetabulum-ligamentfemur complex and of this complex following rupture of the ligament and stabilization with a toggle rod and 5-mm woven polyester were determined by use of compression tests that simulated weight-bearing.

Results—Mechanical properties of the toggle rod were not significantly different from those of the toggle pin. Woven polyester had the longest fatigue life in cyclic testing. Hip joints stabilized with a toggle rod and woven polyester had less than half the strength in vitro of intact joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a toggle rod or toggle pin can be used for stabilization of hip joint luxations in dogs. Of the materials tested, braided polyester had the best in vitro mechanical properties. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 721–728)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11-dTXB2) in urine of healthy control dogs, dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy, and dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) and assess the relationship between urinary 11-dTXB2 concentrations in dogs with GDV and postoperative outcomes.

Sample Population—Urine samples from 15 nonsurgical control dogs, 12 surgical control dogs, and 32 dogs with GVD.

Procedure—Urine samples were obtained from healthy pet dogs (ie, nonsurgical control dogs), dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy at anesthetic induction and 1 hour following surgery (ie, surgical control dogs), and dogs with GDV at hospital admission and 1 hour following surgical derotation of the stomach (ie, GDV dogs). Urinary 11-dTXB2 concentrations were determined with an ELISA and normalized to urinary creatinine (Cr) concentrations by calculation of the 11-dTXB2 -to-Cr ratio. Differences in median 11-dTXB2 -to-Cr ratios among dogs and before and after surgery were analyzed.

Results—Urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios did not differ between nonsurgical control dogs and surgical control dogs before or after surgery. Urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios were significantly higher in GDV dogs at the time of hospital admission and 1 hour after surgery, compared with those of nonsurgical control dogs. Postoperative urine samples from GDV dogs had significantly higher 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios than postoperative urine samples from surgical control dogs. Median urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios increased significantly in GDV dogs that developed postoperative complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary 11-dTXB2 concentration is increased in GDV dogs at the time of hospital admission and after surgical derotation of the stomach, compared with that of healthy dogs. An increased urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratio following surgery is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative complications in dogs with GDV.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure 15F2t isoprostane concentrations in the urine of dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE) and dogs undergoing surgery because of intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) and to assess relationships between urinary concentrations of 15F2t isoprostanes and neurologic score in dogs with IVDD.

Animals—11 dogs undergoing OHE and 32 dogs with IVDD undergoing hemilaminectomy.

Procedures—Paired urine samples were obtained at induction of anesthesia and approximately 1 hour after OHE (controls) and were collected from dogs with IVDD at induction of anesthesia (28 samples) and approximately 1 hour after hemilaminectomy (31 samples); 26 paired urine samples were obtained from dogs with IVDD. Urinary isoprostane concentrations were measured by use of a commercial ELISA, and results were adjusted on the basis of urinary creatinine concentrations. Differences in the mean isoprostane-to-creatinine ratio were analyzed. Neurologic score was determined in dogs with IVDD by use of the modified Frankel scoring system.

Results—Urinary isoprostane-to-creatinine ratios were significantly higher in dogs with IVDD than in control dogs before and after surgery. There was no significant difference between values before and after surgery for either group. There was a significant correlation of neurologic score and urinary isoprostane-to-creatinine ratio because dogs that had higher neurologic scores (ie, less severely affected) generally had higher isoprostane-to-creatinine ratios.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary isoprostane-to-creatinine ratios were higher in dogs with IVDD before and after surgery. Analysis of these data suggests that dogs with IVDD are in a state of oxidative stress and that preemptive treatment with antioxidants warrants further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research