CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old spayed female Dalmatian was examined because of progressive pelvic limb paraparesis.
CLINICAL FINDINGS The dog had a history of chronic urinary incontinence and had been treated with phenylpropanolamine (PPA) for almost 8.5 years. Intervertebral disk disease at T12–13 was diagnosed, and a hemilaminectomy was performed. Three days after surgery, the dog developed a ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Severe left and mild right ventricular hypertrophy were detected by echocardiography.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The arrhythmia was controlled with sotalol. Phenylpropanolamine administration was discontinued immediately before surgery and was not resumed. Heart rate and rhythm and blood pressure were within reference limits, and the ventricular hypertrophy had almost completely resolved 5 months later. Sotalol administration was discontinued. Shortly after the 5-month recheck evaluation, PPA administration was resumed, albeit at a lower dosage than that before surgery, for control of urinary incontinence. At the 10-month recheck evaluation, the dog was hypertensive and ventricular hypertrophy had recurred. Discontinuation of PPA administration was recommended but not heeded. The dog developed marked azotemia 1.5 years after surgery, which was managed by the referring veterinarian, and was subsequently lost to follow-up.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE The fact that the ventricular hypertrophy almost completely resolved when PPA administration was discontinued and then recurred after it was resumed strongly suggested the drug was an important contributing factor to the cardiac disease of this patient. Patients receiving PPA on a long-term basis should be frequently monitored for cardiac disease, and use of other adrenergic receptor agonists should be avoided in such patients.
To characterize lung ultrasonography (LUS) findings in dogs with a primary clinical complaint of cough.
100 client-owned coughing dogs.
A standardized LUS examination was performed for all dogs to quantify the number of B lines and identify subpleural abnormalities at 4 sites on each hemithorax. The final clinical diagnosis (reference standard) was determined by medical record review, and sensitivity and specificity of LUS for the diagnosis of selected causes of cough was determined.
Common underlying causes of cough included dynamic airway collapse (n = 37), cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE; 12), and bronchitis (10). Compared with dogs with other causes of cough, dogs with bacterial pneumonia (n = 7) were more likely to have subpleural shred signs, whereas dogs with pulmonary neoplasia (4) were more likely to have subpleural nodule signs. Dogs with CPE had higher total B-line scores and higher numbers of LUS sites strongly positive for B lines (> 3 B lines/site) than other dogs. The LUS criteria of total B-line score ≥ 10 and presence of ≥ 2 sites strongly positive for B lines were each 92% sensitive and 94% specific for CPE diagnosis. Notably, 18% (16/88) of dogs with noncardiac causes of cough had been treated previously with diuretics because of prior CPE misdiagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
LUS profiles in dogs with cough differed by the underlying cause. In dogs with a clinical history of cough, this imaging modality could be diagnostically useful, particularly to help exclude the possibility of underlying CPE.
To evaluate the clinicopathologic, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic effects of short-term administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone to systemically normal cats.
10 cats with allergic dermatitis and 10 healthy control cats.
Cats with allergic dermatitis were randomly allocated to 2 groups and received 2 dosages of prednisolone (1 and 2 mg/kg/d, PO, for 7 days) in a crossover design followed by 9-day tapering and 14-day washout periods. Each prednisolone-treated cat was matched to a healthy control cat on the basis of sex, neuter status, age (± 1 year), and body weight (± 10%). Control cats received no treatment during the 35-day observation period. Clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables were measured at baseline (day 0) and predetermined times during and after prednisolone administration and compared within and between the 2 treatment groups.
Prednisolone-treated cats had expected clinicopathologic alterations (mild increases in neutrophil and monocyte counts and serum concentrations of albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides) but systolic arterial blood pressure; blood glucose, serum potassium, and cardiac biomarker concentrations; urinary sodium excretion; and echocardiographic variables did not differ significantly from baseline at any time. Statistically significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, increases in blood glucose and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were observed between baseline and the prednisolone pharmacokinetic steady state (7 days after initiation) only when the 2-mg/kg dosage was administered.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated short-term oral administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone did not cause relevant hemodynamic, echocardiographic, or diabetogenic effects in systemically normal cats with allergic dermatitis.
OBJECTIVE To investigate mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory doses of orally administered intermediate-acting glucocorticoids (prednisone) could predispose dogs to progression of heart disease or congestive heart failure.
ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs with allergic dermatitis and 11 matched healthy control dogs.
PROCEDURES Clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables were measured. Dogs with allergic dermatitis then received prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 14 consecutive days beginning on day 0 (baseline), followed by a tapering and washout period; control dogs received no treatment. Measurements were repeated on days 7, 14, and 35. Linear mixed modeling was used to compare changes in variables across measurement points and between dog groups.
RESULTS Prednisone administration caused no significant changes in serum sodium or potassium concentration, blood glucose concentration, or target echocardiographic variables. The change from baseline in systolic arterial blood pressure at day 7 was significantly greater in prednisone-treated dogs than in control dogs. Expected changes in hematologic and serum biochemical values with prednisone administration (neutrophilia, eosinopenia, isosthenuria, and high serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities) also occurred in the prednisone-treated dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that anti-inflammatory doses of orally administered glucocorticoids have the potential to adversely impact cardiac function in dogs by causing an increase in blood pressure and thus increased cardiac afterload.