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  • Author or Editor: Wei-Chen Kuo x
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Objective—To compare sedative, analgesic, and cardiopulmonary effects after IV administration of medetomidine (20 µg/kg), medetomidine-hydromorphone (20 µg of medetomidine/kg and 0.1 mg of hydromorphone/kg), and medetomidine-butorphanol (20 µg of medetomidine/kg and 0.2 mg of butorphanol tartrate/kg) in dogs.

Animals—6 dogs healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Instruments were surgically inserted, and heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure (CVP), core body temperature, and cardiac output (CO) were measured 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after injection. Cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV), stroke index (SI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were calculated. Arterial samples for blood gas analysis were collected 0, 15, and 45 minutes after injection. Intensity of analgesia, degree of sedation, and degree of muscle relaxation were evaluated at aforementioned time points and 75, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 minutes after injection.

Results—Administration of medetomidine, medetomidine-hydromorphone, and medetomidine-butorphanol was associated with increases in SAP, MAP, DAP, MPAP, PCWP, CVP, SVR, PVR, core body temperature, and PaCO2 and decreases in HR, CO, CI, SV, SI, RR, pH, and PaO2. Clinically important differences were not detected among treatments. Medetomidine-hydromorphone and medetomidine-butorphanol provided a longer duration of sedation and better quality of analgesia, compared with medetomidine alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomidine-hydromorphone or medetomidine-butorphanol is associated with improved analgesia and sedation but has cardiopulmonary effects comparable to those for medetomidine alone. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:931–937)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the effects of butorphanol and carprofen, alone and in combination, on the minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in dogs.

Design—Randomized complete-block crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Minimal alveolar concentration of isoflurane was determined following administration of carprofen alone, butorphanol alone, carprofen and butorphanol, and neither drug (control). Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen, and MAC was determined by use of a tail clamp method. Three hours prior to induction of anesthesia, dogs were fed a small amount of canned food without any drugs (control) or with carprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight [1 mg/lb]). Following initial determination of MAC, butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], IV) was administered, and MAC was determined again. Heart rate, respiratory rate, indirect arterial blood pressure, endtidal partial pressure of CO2, and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen were recorded at the time MAC was determined.

Results—Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane following administration of butorphanol alone (1.03 ± 0.22%) or carprofen and butorphanol (0.90 ± 0.21%) were significantly less than the control MAC (1.28 ± 0.14%), but MAC after administration of carprofen alone (1.20 ± 0.13%) was not significantly different from the control value. The effects of carprofen and butorphanol on the MAC of isoflurane were additive. There were not any significant differences among treatments in regard to cardiorespiratory data.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of butorphanol alone or in combination with carprofen significantly reduces the MAC of isoflurane in dogs; however, the effects of butorphanol and carprofen are additive, not synergistic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1025–1028)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association