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Abstract

Objective—To compare the safety and efficacy of preoperative administration of meloxicam with that of ketoprofen and butorphanol in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery.

Animals—36 dogs undergoing laparotomy, splenectomy, or cystotomy.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. In the first part of the study, dogs were given a single dose of meloxicam, ketoprofen, or a placebo, and buccal mucosal bleeding times were measured. In the second part of the study, dogs were given meloxicam, ketoprofen, or butorphanol prior to surgery. Dogs in the butorphanol group received a second dose immediately after surgery. Pain scores (1 to 10) were assigned hourly for 20 hours after surgery and used to determine an overall efficacy score for each dog. Dogs with a pain score ≥ 3 were given oxymorphone for pain. Dogs were euthanatized 8 days after surgery, and gross and histologic examinations of the liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract were conducted.

Results—Overall efficacy was rated as good or excellent in 9 of the 12 dogs that received meloxicam, compared with 9 of the 12 dogs that received ketoprofen and only 1 of the 12 dogs that received butorphanol. No clinically important hematologic, biochemical, or pathologic abnormalities were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preoperative administration of meloxicam is a safe and effective method of controlling postoperative pain for 20 hours in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery; the analgesic effects of meloxicam were comparable to those of ketoprofen and superior to those of butorphanol. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:882–888)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The effects of the corticosteroid 6-α-methylprednisolone acetate on normal equine articular cartilage were evaluated, using the middle carpal joint in 4 clinically normal young horses. One middle carpal joint of each horse was injected 3 times with 100 mg of 6-α-methylprednisolone acetate, at 14-day intervals. The opposite middle carpal joint (control) was injected with 2.5 ml of lactated Ringer solution at the same intervals. Effects were studied until 8 weeks after the first injection. Evaluation included clinical and radiographic examination, and gross, microscopic, and biochemical evaluation of joint tissues.

Horses remained clinically normal during the study, and significant radiographic changes were not observed. Safranin-0 matrix staining intensity and uronic acid content were significantly (P < 0.05) lower and hydroxyproline content was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in articular cartilage of corticosteroid-injected joints vs control joints.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation (VI), and fluorescent antibody (FA) testing to detect feline herpesvirus (FHV) in cats with naturally acquired conjunctivitis or respiratory tract disease, or both.

Samples

Swab and microbrush specimens from the conjunctiva and throat were taken from 46 cats, allotted to 3 groups (conjunctivitis only, respiratory tract disease and conjunctivitis, and clinically normal).

Procedure

Cells from microbrush specimens were digested and herpesvirus DNA was amplified, using a double round of PCR. Products were detected by use of agarose gel electrophoresis. The VI and FA tests were performed in routine manner.

Results

Of 16 cats with conjunctivitis only, conjunctival specimens from 8 and throat specimens from 8 were FHV positive by PCR. None had positive results of VI or FA testing. Of 15 cats with respiratory tract disease and conjunctivitis, conjunctival specimens from 13 and throat specimens from 12 were FHV positive by PCR. A conjunctival specimen from 1 cat and throat specimens from 3 cats were FHV positive by VI. A conjunctival specimen from 1 cat was FHV positive by FA testing. Of 15 clinically normal cats, conjunctival and throat specimens from 2 cats were FHV positive by PCR; neither conjunctival nor throat specimens from these cats were FHV positive by VI or FA testing.

Conclusion

For cats with respiratory tract disease and conjunctivitis, or with conjunctivitis only, nested PCR was more sensitive at detecting FHV than was VI or FA testing.

Clinical Relevance

Nested PCR is a more sensitive test than the currently available VI and FA tests for identifying FHV in cats with conjunctivitis. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:804–807)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effects of intra-articular administration of methylprednisolone acetate (mpa) on the healing of full-thickness osteochondral defects and on normal cartilage were evaluated in 8 horses. In group-1 horses (n = 4), a 1-cm-diameter, full-thickness defect was created bilaterally in the articular cartilage on the dorsal distal surface of the radial carpal bone. Cartilage defects were not created in group-2 horses (n = 4). One middle carpal joint was randomly selected in each horse (groups 1 and 2), and treated with an intra-articular injection of 100 mg of mpa, once a week for 4 treatments. Injections began 1 week after surgery in group-1 horses. The contralateral middle carpal joint received intra-articular injections of an equivalent volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution (scs), and served as a control. Horses were evaluated for 16 weeks, then were euthanatized, and the middle carpal joints were examined and photographed. Synovial and articular cartilage specimens were obtained for histologic and histochemical evaluation.

Gross morphometric evaluation of the healing defects in group-1 horses revealed that 48.6% of the defect in control joints and 0% of the defect in mpa-treated joints was resurfaced with a smooth, white tissue, histologically confirmed as fibrocartilage. This replacement tissue was a firmly attached fibrocartilage in control joints and a thin fibrous tissue in mpa-treated joints. The articular cartilage in joints treated with mpa had morphologic changes, including chondrocyte cluster formation, loss of palisading architecture, and cellular necrosis in both groups of horses. Histochemical (safranin-0) staining intensity was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in all layers of articular cartilage in mpa-treated joints in groups 1 and 2. In the replacement tissue, intense safranin-0 staining was found only in the chondrocyte clusters deep in the tissue of control joints, confirming fibrocartilage repair. Intra-articular administration of mpa in this dosing regimen thus induced degenerative changes in normal articular cartilage and resulted in histomorphologic changes in the repair of full-thickness articular osteochondral defects in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the role of noncommercial pigs in the epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus.

Design—Seroepidemiologic study and survey study.

Animals—661 pigs from which blood samples were collected at slaughter and 32 pigs from which blood samples were collected longitudinally.

Procedures—Spatial databases of commercial farms and 4-H participation were evaluated by use of commercial geographic information systems software. Information on disease knowledge and management methods of 4-H participants was obtained by mail survey and personal interview. Serum samples for antibody testing by PRRS ELISA were obtained from pigs at slaughter or at county fairs and on farms.

Results—Participation in 4-H swine programs was geographically associated with commercial swine production in Minnesota, and 39% of 4-H participants reared pigs at locations with commercial pigs. High seroprevalence at fairs (49%; range, 29% to 76%) and seroconversion after fairs indicated that PRRS virus exposure was common in pigs shown by 4-H participants and that transmission could occur at fairs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The small swine population shown by 4-H members (estimated 12,000 pigs) relative to the population of commercial swine in Minnesota (estimated 6.5 million pigs) suggested the former overall was likely of minor importance to PRRS virus epidemiology at present. However, the relative frailty of knowledge of biosecurity practices, evidence that PRRS virus exposure was frequent, common intentions to show pigs at multiple events, and often close interactions with commercial herds suggested that the 4-H community should be involved in regional efforts to control PRRS.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess whether the combination of hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sul-fate, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (HCSG) lubricates articular cartilage in vitro and modulates joint lubrication in vivo.

ANIMALS

16 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES

The effects of HCSG injections on SF lubricant properties and joint health, immediately after injury and 2 weeks later, were analyzed by use an equine osteochondral fracture model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Middle carpal joints of adult horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 surgical treatment groups as follows: normal nonsurgical group (n = 8), normal sham-surgical group (8), OA-induced surgical group with HCSG injection (8), or OA-induced surgical group with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution injection (8). Synovial fluid was aspirated periodically and analyzed for boundary lubrication function and lubricant molecules. At 17 days, joints were screened for gross pathological changes.

RESULTS

Induction of OA led to an impairment of SF lubrication function and diminished hyaluronan concentration in a time-dependent manner following surgery, with HCSG injection lessening these effects. Certain friction coefficients approached those of unaffected normal equine SF. Induction of OA also caused synovial hemorrhage at 17 days, which was lower in joints treated with HCSG.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

After induction of OA, equine SF lubricant function was impaired. Hyaluronan-sodium chondroitin sulfate–N-acetyl-d-glucosamine injection restored lubricant properties at certain time points and reduced pathological joint changes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of treadmill exercise on subchondral bone of carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints of 2-year-old horses.

Animals—12 healthy 2-year-old horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to the control (n = 6) or exercised (6) groups. Horses in the exercised group ran on a high-speed treadmill 5 d/wk for 6 months. Horses in the control group were hand walked for the same amount of time. Results of clinical, radiographic, nuclear scintigraphic, and computed tomographic examinations, and serum and synovial concentrations of biochemical markers of bone metabolism were compared between groups.

Results—Exercised horses were significantly lamer at the end of the study than control horses. Radionuclide uptake in the metacarpal condyles, but not in the carpal joints, was greater in exercised horses, compared with control horses. Exercised horses also had a higher subchondral bone density in the metacarpal condyles than control horses, but such differences were not detected in the carpal bones.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—None of the diagnostic techniques evaluated was sufficiently sensitive to detect all osteochondral damage. Computed tomography and computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry were superior to conventional radiography for detecting small osteochondral fragments. Nuclear scintigraphy was a sensitive indicator of subchondral bone change but lacked specificity for describing lesions and discerning normal bone remodeling from damage. Newer techniques such as computed tomography may help clinicians better diagnose early and subtle joint lesions in horses prior to development of gross joint damage. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1252–1258)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Twenty-four dogs with induced, severe chronic renal failure were allotted to 2 groups of 12 each. Group-A dogs were fed a 0.4% phosphorus (P)/0.6% calcium, 32% protein diet, and group-B dogs were fed a 1.4% P/l.9% calcium, 32% protein diet. Dogs were studied over 24 months to determine clinical status, survival, blood biochemical alterations, glomerular filtration rate (gfr), urinary excretion of P and protein, renal morphologic changes, and renal tissue concentrations of calcium, P, and magnesium.

Group-A dogs developed statistically significant differences from group-B dogs in several blood biochemical values (pcv and total solids, calcium, P, potassium, sodium, chlonde, total CO2 (TCO2), anion gap, and parathyroid hormone concentrations) and in urinary P excretion.

Mean ( ± sem) gfr values in group-A and group-B dogs were nearly identical when diets were initiated (group _A = 0.73 ± 0.05 ml/min/kg of body weight; group B = 0.72 ± 0.08 ml/min/kg), but significantly (P = 0.0346) lower gfr developed in group-B than in group-A dogs over time. At 24 months, gfr in survivors was 0.83 ± 0.08 and 0.63 ± 0.15 ml/min/kg for dogs of groups A and B, respectively.

Other measurements favored the hypothesis that P/calcium restriction was beneficial, but values failed to reach statistical significance. Survival was greater at 24 months in group-A than in group-B (7 vs 5) dogs, and renal tissue concentrations of calcium and P were higher in group-B than in group-A dogs.

Differences were not detected between groups in urinary excretion of protein and in the type or severity of renal lesions.

We conclude that P/calcium restriction at 32% protein intake is beneficial to dogs with chronic renal failure, but that the degree of restriction imposed in group-A dogs of this study did not prevent development of abnormalities. Factors other than dietary P/calcium intake may have a role in progression of renal failure to uremia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research