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  • Author or Editor: Wayne E. Loch x
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Summary

We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnfα) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- to 3-day-old colostrum-fed (cf) and colostrum-deprived (cd) foals. Eleven cf and 8 cd neonatal foals were given a bolus IV infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 µg kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum tnfα concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as tnfα by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2- terminal amino acids of human tnfα. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preiniusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum tnfα concentration increased in all lps-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum tnfα concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum tnfα concentration, persisted longer in cd foals given lps than in cf foals given lps. All lps-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the cf and cd foals given lps were not significantly different at any time. Serum tnfα concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both lps-infused groups. Mean rectal temperature increased by 1 hour and remained high for 4 hours after infusion in cf foals given lps . Mean rectal temperature in cd foals given lps was significantly less than that for cf foals given lps 1 and 2 hours after infusion and was higher than mean rectal temperature prior to infusion 3 and 4 hours after infusion. Neither preinfusion total serum IgG concentration nor serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer correlated with peak serum tnfα concentration in the 19 lps-infused foals.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Serum interleukin-6 (il-6) concentration was measured in 11 colostrum-fed (cf) and 8 colostrum-deprived (cd) 2- to 3-day-old foals after foals were infused with lipopolysaccharide (lps; Escherichia coli O55:B5 endotoxin, 0.5 µ.g/kg of body weight in sterile saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum il-6 concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro proliferative bioassay, using the IL-6 dependent B.13.29 clone 9 cells. Interleukin-6 concentration increased in all lps-infused foals, and geometric mean serum il- 6 concentration was significantly higher in cf than cd foals 30 and 90 minutes after infusion. Both lps- infused groups had multiple spikes of mean il-6 concentration that peaked at 120 minutes in cf foals and 150 minutes in cd foals. Results indicated that il-6 is produced in neonatal foals in response to lps infusion. Furthermore, colostrum deprivation resulted in longer times to peak mean serum il-6 concentration and tended to reduce serum il-6 concentration in neonatal foals.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of local anesthesia of the palmar digital nerves on forelimb kinematics in Quarter Horses with and without navicular disease.

Animals

12 adult Quarter Horses; 5 clinically normal (sound) and 7 with navicular disease.

Procedure

Kinematic measurements were made on adult horses trotting on a treadmill, before and after palmar digital nerve block (PDNB). Twenty-three displacement, joint angle, and temporal gait measurements of the right forelimb and head were made for 5 strides in each horse. Initial (before local anesthesia) right forelimb measurements were obtained after a left forelimb PDNB. Kinematic measurements were compared before and after PDNB of the right forelimb by multiple ANOVA with an α = 0.05, adjusted for posthoc comparisons by Bonferroni correction.

Results

In sound horses, the only significant change in kinematic measurements after PDNB nerve block was in the maximum extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint at mid-stance, which was decreased by an angle of 2°. In horses with navicular disease, mean maximum extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint during stance phase and maximum flexion of the carpal joint during swing phase were significantly increased after PDNB. Also, total stance phase, cranial stance phase, and breakover durations were significantly shorter. In horses with navicular disease, differences between minimum head heights during stance phase of each forelimb and total vertical head excursion during a complete stride were significantly smaller after PDNB.

Conclusion

Several kinematic measurements of gait can be used to determine improvement of lameness in horses with navicular disease after PDNB block while trotting on a treadmill. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:218–223)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research