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SUMMARY

The steady-state response characteristics of a pulse oximeter were evaluated on intestinal segments of seven clinically normal halothane-anesthetized horses. Arterial oxygen tension > 200 mm of Hg, end tidal carbon dioxide from 30 to 35 mm of Hg, and systemic mean arterial pressure > 70 mm of Hg were maintained throughout the recording periods. Values for percentage of pulse oximeter oxygen saturation, pulsatile blood flow, and percentage of signal strength were recorded from jejunum, ileum, cecum, left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, and descending colon. Probe placement on intestinal segments was recorded as over or not over visible subserosal or transmural vessels. There was no significant difference between median values on the basis of vessel codes for pulse oximeter oxygen saturations, pulsatile flow, and signal strength. Median values recorded for pulse oximeter oxygen saturation were 93% from jejunum and ileum and 95% from cecum, left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, and descending colon; median values for pulsatile flow were 576 from jejunum, 560 from ileum, 560 from cecum, 574 from left ventral colon, 578 from left dorsal colon, and 560 from descending colon; median values for signal strength were 50% from jejunum, 67.5% from ileum, 60% from cecum, 75% from left ventral colon, 50% from left dorsal colon, and 52.5% from descending colon. Median values obtained from each anatomic location were not significantly different for pulsatile flow or signal strength. Median pulse oximetry oxygen values recorded from jejunum and ileum were significantly lower than values obtained from other intestinal segments. When calculated arterial oxygen saturation was compared with oxygen saturation determined by the pulse oximeter, pulse oximeter oxygen saturation was consistently lower by 6.7% (jejunum and ileum) and 4.7% (cecum, left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, and descending colon). Equine and human absorption spectra were generated and compared for reduced hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin at wavelengths of 600 nm (red) to 950 nm (infrared). Extinction coefficients calculated at wavelengths used by the pulse oximeter (660 nm and 940 nm) were nearly identical. The pulse oximeter is a self-calibrating instrument that displays oxygen saturation, heart rate, plethysmographic waveform, and signal strength indicator. Probe application was rapid and easy. Response time for the appear ance of a plethysmographic waveform ranged from 5 to 25 seconds.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To provide long-term gastric fistulas for collection of third-compartment gastric contents, Janeway mucosal tube gastrostomy was performed, using a gastrointestinal stapling instrument, in 6 castrated adult male llamas. Mean operative time (±sem) was 65 ±4.16 minutes. All llamas survived the 6-week study period. Of the 6 llamas, 5 did not have signs of abdominal pain and returned to preoperative food consumption amounts within 36 hours. One llama had mild intermittent signs of abdominal pain daily for 7 days before returning to preoperative amount of food consumption. All gastrostomies leaked small amounts of gastric contents around indwelling 6- to 8-mm cannulas at the skin surface. Gastric contents did not leak when cannulas were dislodged from gastrostomy stomas. Replacement of cannulas was rapid and easy. Gravity-flow sample collection was best accomplished through 8-mm cannulas. Mean (±sem) weight loss was detected in all llamas (15 ± 3 kg) and was associated with frequent nonfeeding and stress of sample collection.

Gross necropsy findings were unremarkable in 5 of 6 llamas. All mucosal tube gastrostomies were patent, and there was no evidence of peritonitis. One llama had a single fibrous adhesion connecting the operative site with the ascending colon. Histologically, small (2.5- to 15-mm diameter) partial-thickness mucosal erosions identified at the tube gastrostomy-gastric wall junctions may have been associated with indwelling gastric cannulas. The Janeway gastrostomy was generally well tolerated in the llamas and should be considered as a useful long-term fistulation technique.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Four autogenous osteochondral fragments removed from the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus were arthroscopically placed as loose bodies in a randomly selected middle carpal joint in each of 10 horses. The contralateral middle carpal joint, subjected to a sham procedure, served as control. Postoperative treatment was consistent with that for clinical arthroscopic patients. Lameness evaluation, radiographic examination, carpal circumference measurement, and synovial fluid analysis were performed before and at scheduled intervals after surgery. After a 2-month confinement, horses were subjected to an increasing level of exercise. Horses were euthanatized at intervals through 6 months. Gross and microscopic evaluations were performed on remaining fragments, articular cartilage, and synovial membrane of each middle carpal joint.

Increased joint circumference, effusion, lameness, and degenerative joint disease distinguished implanted from control joints over the 6-month period. Implanted joints were characterized by grooved, excoriated cartilage surfaces, and synovium that was thick, erythematous, and irregular. At 4 weeks, implants were found to have adhered to synovium at their subchondral bone surface. The bone within fragments was undergoing necrosis, while cartilage was preserved. At 8 weeks, fragments were radiographically inapparent, grossly evident as pale plaques on the synovial surface, and composed of dense fibrous connective tissue.

Synovial membrane specimens from implanted joints had inflammatory change characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration 2 months after implantation. Physical damage was apparent within articular cartilage of implanted joints at 2 months, and was significant (P < 0.05) at 6 months after surgery. Chondrocyte degenerative change was significant (P < 0.05) at 6 months after surgery. Focal reduction in safranin-O uptake was observed in cartilage layers adjacent to physical defects.

Osteochondral loose bodies of the size implanted in the middle carpal joint of horses in this study were resorbed by the synovium within 2 months. Synovitis and significant articular cartilage damage were associated with the implanted fragments. Regardless of origin, free osteochondral fragments within the middle carpal joint should be removed, and methods to prevent residual postoperative debris should be implemented to reduce potential for articular pathologic change.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research