Objective—To determine whether detection of virusspecific
serum antibodies correlates with resistance
to challenge with virulent feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1),
feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline parvovirus (FPV) in
cats and to determine percentages of client-owned
cats with serum antibodies to FHV-1, FCV, and FPV.
Design—Prospective experimental study.
Animals—72 laboratory-reared cats and 276 clientowned
Procedures—Laboratory-reared cats were vaccinated
against FHV-1, FCV, and FPV, using 1 of 3 commercial
vaccines, or maintained as unvaccinated controls.
Between 9 and 36 months after vaccination,
cats were challenged with virulent virus. Recombinant-antigen ELISA for detection of FHV-1-, FCV-,
and FPV-specific antibodies were developed, and
results were compared with results of hemagglutination
inhibition (FPV) and virus neutralization (FHV-1
and FCV) assays and with resistance to viral challenge.
Results—For vaccinated laboratory-reared cats, predictive
values of positive results were 100% for the
FPV and FCV ELISA and 90% for the FHV-1 ELISA.
Results of the FHV-1, FCV, and FPV ELISA were positive
for 195 (70.7%), 255 (92.4%), and 189 (68.5%),
respectively, of the 276 client-owned cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that for cats that have been vaccinated, detection
of FHV-1-, FCV-, and FPV-specific antibodies is
predictive of whether cats are susceptible to disease,
regardless of vaccine type or vaccination interval.
Because most client-owned cats had detectable
serum antibodies suggestive of resistance to infection,
use of arbitrary booster vaccination intervals is
likely to lead to unnecessary vaccination of some cats.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;219:38–42)
Objective—To develop a polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) assay that detects and differentiates the Ohio
strain of Haemobartonella felis (H felis-OH) and the
California strain of H felis (H felis-CA) and to apply the
assay to blood samples from cats with and without
suspected haemobartonellosis (suspect and control
Sample Population—220 blood samples were
examined; 82 were from suspect cats, and 138 were
from control cats.
Procedure—A PCR assay was designed to detect
and differentiate H felis-OH and H felis-CA.
Results—On the basis of PCR assay results, the overall
prevalence of H felis infection was 19.5% (43/220).
Suspect cats (28.0%; 23/82) were significantly more
likely than control cats (14.5%; 20/138) to be H felis
infected. Significantly greater numbers of suspect
cats were H felis-OH infected (12.2%, 9/82) or H felis-OH and H felis-CA infected (4.9%, 4/82) than control
cats (0% [0/138] and 0.7% [1/138], respectively).
Significantly more anemic cats were H felis-OH infected
(14.3%; 4/28) or H felis-OH and H felis-CA infected
(7.1%; 2/28) than nonanemic cats (2.3% [3/128] and
0.8% [1/128], respectively). The PCR assay was more
accurate than cytologic examination for detection of
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—
Haemobartonella felis infections are more common in cats
than previously recognized. Haemobartonella felis-OH
is apparently more pathogenic than H felis-CA. The
PCR assay is more accurate than cytologic examination
for detection of H felis infection and is an effective
clinical tool for the detection and differentiation of
both H felis strains known to infect cats. (Am J Vet
Objective—To determine whether administration of
Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell lysates or vaccines
against feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus,
and panleukopenia (FVRCP vaccines) that likely contain
CRFK cell proteins induces antibodies against
CRFK cell or feline renal cell (FRC) lysates in cats.
Animals—14 eight-week-old cats.
Procedure—Before and after the study, renal biopsy
specimens were obtained from each cat for histologic
evaluation. Each of 4 FVRCP vaccines was administered
to 2 cats at weeks 0, 3, 6, and 50. Between
weeks 0 and 50, another 3 pairs of cats received 11
CRFK cell lysate inoculations SC (10, 50, or 50 µg
mixed with alum). Clinicopathologic evaluations and
ELISAs to detect serum antibodies against CRFK cell
or FRC lysates were performed at intervals.
Results—Cats had no antibodies against CRFK cell
or FRC lysates initially. All cats administered CRFK
cell lysate had detectable antibodies against CRFK
cell or FRC lysates on multiple occasions. Of 6 cats
vaccinated parenterally, 5 had detectable antibodies
against CRFK cell lysate at least once, but all 6 had
detectable antibodies against FRC lysate on multiple
occasions. Cats administered an intranasal-intraocular
vaccine did not develop detectable antibodies
against either lysate. Important clinicopathologic or
histologic abnormalities were not detected during
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenteral
administration of vaccines containing viruses likely
grown on CRFK cells induced antibodies against
CRFK cell and FRC lysates in cats. Hypersensitization
with CRFK cell proteins did not result in renal disease
in cats during the 56-week study. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:506–511)
Objectives—To describe clinical and laboratory findings
associated with cats experimentally infected by
inoculation with the 2 recognized genotypes of
Hemobartonella felis (small variant, Hfsm; large variant,
Hflg) and to determine the response of cats to
treatment with azithromycin.
Animals—18 young adult domestic shorthair cats of
Procedures—Cats were inoculated with H felis and
monitored weekly, using CBC counts and a polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) designed to detect both
genetic variants of H felis. Beginning 26 days after
inoculation, 11 cats were administered azithromycin
(15 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h, for 7 days).
Results—Inoculation resulted in coinfection with Hflg
and Hfsm, and both variants were detected by PCR.
Clinical abnormalities and anemia were most severe in
Hflg- and dual-infected cats. Results of PCR and CBC
were positive for H felis in 112/112 (100%) and 42/112
(37.5%), respectively, samples collected after inoculation.
Administration of azithromycin had little effect on
clinical variables, including anemia. All cats, regardless
of treatment with azithromycin, had positive results for
the PCR at the end of the study period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In these cats,
Hflg was more pathogenic than Hfsm, and coinfection
with both variants was detected. Results of the PCR
were superior to results of CBC for detecting infection
with H felis. Azithromycin administered at the
dose and duration reported here was not efficacious
for the treatment of cats with hemobartonellosis. ( Am
J Vet Res 2000;62:687–691)
Objective—To determine the diagnostic usefulness of semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria assays and urine albumin-to-creatinine (UAC) ratio for detecting disease in cats.
Animals—441 cats evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital.
Procedures—Urine samples from cats for which a complete medical record was available were included. Urine dipstick results, urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (cutoffs, 0.1 and 0.4), semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria assay results (cutoff, 1 mg/dL), and UAC ratio values (cutoffs, 100 and 200 mg/g) were determined. Clinical diagnoses determined within 3 months of enrollment were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity were determined with disease status used as the standard. The influences of clinical diagnosis, sex, age, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, blood pressure, bacterial urine culture results, rectal temperature, pyuria, hematuria, and bacteriuria were evaluated by means of logistic regression.
Results—Of 441 cats that were eligible for inclusion, 40 were healthy and 401 had ≥ 1 disease. Results of logistic regression indicated that significant associations existed for age, presence of disease, presence of urinary tract disease, azotemia, hematuria, and pyuria and results of 1 or both of the microalbuminuria assays.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Microalbuminuria was associated with underlying disease. Sensitivity and specificity of the microalbuminuria assays for detection of systemic disease were superior to those of other tests. Microalbuminuria testing in conjunction with other screening procedures may increase identification of occult disease. A prospective study evaluating the predictive values of screening tests with and without microalbuminuria determination is needed to validate this recommendation.
Objective—To evaluate semiquantitative and quantitative assays for microalbuminuria and determination of the urine albumin-creatinine (UAC) ratio in detection of systemic disease in dogs without overt proteinuria.
Procedures—Urine samples that had been obtained from dogs for which a complete medical record was available and in which results of a dipstick test for urine protein were negative were evaluated. Urine protein-creatinine ratios (cutoff values, 0.5 and 0.1), semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria values (cutoff value, 1 mg/dL), and UAC ratios (cutoff values, 100 and 200 mg/g) were determined. Clinical diagnoses rendered within 3 months of enrollment in the study were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity were determined with disease status serving as the standard. Associations with clinical diagnosis, sex, age, BUN and serum creatinine concentrations, blood pressure, results of bacterial culture of urine, temperature, pyuria, hematuria, and bacteriuria were evaluated by use of logistic regression analysis.
Results—48 dogs were healthy, and 360 had at least 1 disease. Significant associations were detected between age, presence of disease, presence of neoplastic disease, BUN and serum creatinine concentrations, and hematuria and results of 1 or both of the microalbuminuria assays.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Microalbuminuria was associated with underlying disease. The sensitivity and specificity of the semiquantitative microalbuminuria test for detection of systemic disease were superior to those of other tests. Microalbuminuria testing in conjunction with other screening procedures may increase diagnosis of subclinical disease, but a prospective study in which the predictive values of screening tests are evaluated, with and without microalbuminuria determination, is needed.
Objective—To identify the prevalence of DNA of Mycoplasma haemofelis; ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’; Anaplasma phagocytophilum; and species of Bartonella, Neorickettsia, and Ehrlichia in blood of cats used as blood donors in the United States. Design—Prospective study.
Animals—146 cats that were active blood donors.
Procedures—Environmental history was requested for each blood-donor cat from which a blood sample (mixed with EDTA) was available. Polymerase chain reaction assays capable of amplifying the DNA of the microorganisms of interest following DNA extraction from blood were performed.
Results—Overall, DNA of one or more of the infectious agents was detected in blood samples from 16 of 146 (11%) feline blood donors. Twenty-eight laboratory-reared cats housed in a teaching hospital had negative results for DNA of all organisms investigated. The DNA of at least 1 infectious agent was amplified from blood samples collected from 16 of 118 (13.6%) community-source cats; assay results were positive for ‘Candidatus M haemominutum,’ M haemofelis, or Bartonella henselae alone or in various combinations. Of the community-source cats allowed outdoors (n = 61) or with known flea exposure (44), DNA for a hemoplasma or B henselae was detected in 21.3% and 22.7%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When community-source cats, cats allowed outdoors, or cats exposed to fleas are to be used as blood donors, they should be regularly assessed for infection with M haemofelis, ‘Candidatus M haemominutum,’ and Bartonella spp, and flea-control treatment should be regularly provided.
Objective—To evaluate the use of dipstick, sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), and urine protein-tocreatinine ratio (UP:C) methods for use in detection of canine and feline albuminuria.
Sample Population—599 canine and 347 feline urine samples.
Procedures—Urine was analyzed by use of dipstick, SSA, and UP:C methods; results were compared with those for a species-specific ELISA to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios.
Results—Positive results for dipstick and SSA tests (trace reaction or greater) in canine urine had moderate specificity (dipstick, 81.2%; SSA, 73.3%) and poor PPV (dipstick, 34.0%; SSA, 41.8%). Values improved when stronger positive results (≥ 2+) for the dipstick and SSA tests were compared with ELISA results (specificity, 98.9% and 99.0% for the urine dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 90.7% and 90.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). Data obtained for cats revealed poor specificity (dipstick, 11.0%; SSA, 25.4%) and PPV (dipstick, 55.6%; SSA, 46.9%). Values improved slightly when stronger positive test results (≥ 2+) were used (specificity, 80.0% and 94.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 63.5% and 65.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). The UP:C had high specificity for albuminuria in dogs and cats (99.7% and 99.2%, respectively) but low sensitivity (28.7% and 2.0%, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caution should be used when interpreting a positive test result of a dipstick or SSA test for canine or feline albuminuria.