Objective—To ascertain the effectiveness of evaluating
ground reaction forces (GRFs) at velocities during
walking and trotting in dogs with naturally occurring
lameness and determine whether walking would provide
sufficient motion to adequately characterize
GRFs with respect to trotting.
Animals—29 dogs with a naturally occurring tear of
the cranial cruciate ligament.
Procedure—Dogs were walked and trotted over a
force platform, and GRFs were recorded during the
stance phase. Correlation was used to assess the
agreement between walking and trotting for GRF. The
coefficient of variation was calculated to assess the
relative variation of outcome variables among the
gaits. Group means for walking GRF were compared
between dogs that trotted and that failed to trot.
Results—GRFs during walking and trotting were
highly correlated. The coefficient of variation was
smaller for GRFs during walking than during trotting.
Dogs that failed to trot had significantly smaller mean
values of peak vertical force and vertical impulse during
walking, compared with values for dogs that were
able to trot.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Either velocity
is acceptable for GRF evaluation in dogs. Mean
GRF during walking was significantly different
between dogs that could and could not trot, principally
because dogs with the most severe lameness
failed to trot. These dogs would be eliminated from a
clinical study, and thus, that study would become
biased toward dogs that were less lame. In that situation,
differences between interventions may be less
pronounced, because they would be evaluated on
dogs with less lameness. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:
Objective—To determine peak vertical force (PVF)
and vertical impulse (VI) in cats that had or had not
undergone bilateral forelimb onychectomy.
Animals—26 healthy adult cats.
Procedure—Onychectomized cats (n = 13) had
undergone surgery more than 6 months prior to the
study. The PVF and VI were collected from all limbs of
each cat with a 2-m pressure platform walkway. Cats
were allowed to walk at a comfortable velocity, and
acceleration was restricted to ± 0.5 m/s2. Five valid trials
were recorded for each cat with all trials collected
in a single 1-hour session. All forces were normalized
to and expressed as a percentage of the cat's body
Results—Gait data were successfully collected in
all cats. No significant difference was found for
PVF or VI between cats that had or had not had
onychectomy. Limb loads were greater in forelimbs
than hind limbs for all trials. Mean PVF and
VI in the forelimbs of cats in the nononychectomy
group were 56.41% and 18.85%, respectively.
Mean PVF and VI in the hind limbs of cats in the
nononychectomy group were 50.22% and 14.56%,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gait analysis
was successfully performed in cats with a pressure
platform walkway. The absence of differences in PVF
and VI between the 2 groups of cats suggests that
bilateral forelimb onychectomy did not result in altered
vertical forces measured more than 6 months after
surgery in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1276–1278)
Objective—To evaluate the analgesic effects of topical
administration of bupivacaine, IM administration
of butorphanol, and transdermal administration of fentanyl
in cats undergoing onychectomy.
Animals—27 healthy adult cats.
Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3
treatment groups, and unilateral (left forefoot) onychectomy
was performed. Gait analysis was performed
before and 1, 2, 3, and 12 days after surgery.
All forces were expressed as a percentage of the
cat's body weight.
Results—On day 2, peak vertical force (PVF) was significantly
decreased in cats treated with bupivacaine, compared
with cats treated with butorphanol or fentanyl. The
ratio of left forelimb PVF to PVF of the other 3 limbs was
significantly lower on day 2 in cats treated with bupivacaine
than in cats treated with fentanyl. No significant
differences in vertical impulse (VI) were found between
groups on any day. Values for PVF, VI, and the PVF ratio
increased progressively following surgery. However, for
all 3 groups, values were still significantly decreased,
compared with baseline values, 12 days after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that limb function following onychectomy is significantly
better in cats treated with fentanyl transdermally
or butorphanol IM than in cats treated with
bupivacaine topically. Regardless of the analgesic regimen,
limb function was still significantly reduced 12
days after surgery, suggesting that long-term analgesic
treatment should be considered for cats undergoing
onychectomy. Irrigation of the surgical incisions
with bupivacaine prior to wound closure cannot be
recommended as the sole method for providing postoperative
analgesia in cats undergoing onychectomy.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:89–93)
Objective—To evaluate short-term postoperative forelimb function after scalpel and laser onychectomy in cats.
Design—Randomized, prospective study.
Animals—20 healthy adult cats.
Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to the laser (n = 10) or scalpel (10) onychectomy group. Unilateral left forelimb onychectomy was performed. In the scalpel group, a tourniquet was used during surgery and a bandage was applied after surgery. Pressure platform gait analysis was performed prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 12 days after onychectomy. Peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse, and the ratio of the PVF of the left forelimb to the sum of the remaining limbs (PVF ratio) were used as outcome measures.
Results—The laser onychectomy group had significantly higher ground reaction forces on days 1 and 2 and significantly higher PVF ratio on day 12, compared with the scalpel group. Similarly, significant differences were found in change in ground reaction forces on days 1 and 2 and the PVF ratio on day 12, compared with day −1. No cats required rescue analgesia during the course of the study. One cat in the laser group had signs of depression and was reluctant to walk on day 2 after surgery, had physical examination findings consistent with cardiac insufficiency, and was euthanized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats had improved limb function immediately after unilateral laser onychectomy, compared with onychectomy with a scalpel, tourniquet, and bandage. This improved limb function may result from decreased pain during the 48 hours following unilateral laser onychectomy.
Objective—To determine the spatiotemporal gait characteristics and associated covariates of clinically normal dogs and dogs with spinal cord disease.
Animals—42 clinically normal dogs and 24 dogs with myelopathy at spinal cord segment T3-L3.
Procedures—Gait was analyzed for velocity, stride length, stride time, stance time, and swing time and compared between groups with consideration of covariates, including height, weight, velocity, sex, and age.
Results—By use of multivariate regression, dogs with neurologic signs, compared with clinically normal dogs, had decreased stride time, stance time, and stride length in the forelimbs and increased swing time in the hind limbs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of spatiotemporal gait characteristics appears to have potential for use as an outcome measure for dogs with neurologic disease.
Objective—To determine whether carprofen, a commercially available NSAID, would decrease perceived exertion and signs of pain in dogs and therefore increase muscle mass and hind limb function without decreasing range of motion after lateral fabellar suture stabilization.
Animals—35 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture and lateral fabellar suture stabilization followed by rehabilitation.
Procedures—All dogs underwent surgical stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament rupture by placement of a lateral fabellar suture. Dogs received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for the first 7 days after surgery and underwent concentrated rehabilitation exercises during weeks 3, 5, and 7 after surgery. Eighteen dogs also received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) during the weeks of concentrated rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured by a single investigator, who was blinded to group assignments, using pressure platform gait analysis, goniometry, thigh circumference, and mean workout speed at a consistent level of exertion.
Results—There were no differences between the 2 groups in ground reaction forces, thigh circumference, or exertion (mean workout speed) over time or at any individual time point. However, both groups improved significantly over time for all outcome measures.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Providing carprofen to dogs during concentrated rehabilitation after lateral fabellar suture stabilization did not improve hind limb function, range of motion, or thigh circumference, nor did it decrease perceived exertion, compared with control dogs. Carprofen was not a compulsory component of a physical therapy regimen after lateral fabellar suture stabilization.
Animals—80 dogs with naturally occurring unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease.
Procedures—All dogs were randomly assigned to undergo LFS (n = 40) or TPLO (40). Clinical data collected included age, weight, body condition score, history information, stifle joint instability, radiographic findings, surgical findings, and complications. Outcome measures were determined prior to surgery and at 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months after surgery, including values of pressure platform gait analysis variables, Canine Brief Pain Inventory scores, owner satisfaction ratings, thigh circumference, and stifle joint goniometry values.
Results—Signalment and data for possible confounding variables were similar between groups. Peak vertical force of affected hind limbs at a walk and trot was 5% to 11% higher for dogs in the TPLO group versus those in the LFS group during the 12 months after surgery. Canine Brief Pain Inventory, goniometry, and thigh circumference results indicated dogs in both groups improved after surgery, but significant differences between groups were not detected. Owner satisfaction ratings at 12 months after surgery were significantly different between groups; 93% and 75% of owners of dogs in the TPLO and LFS groups indicated a satisfaction score ≥ 9 (scale, 1 to 10), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Kinematic and owner satisfaction results indicated dogs that underwent TPLO had better outcomes than those that underwent LFS.
Objective—To determine the outcome and effect of
surgical technique on limb function after surgery for
rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (RCCL) and
injury to the medial meniscus in Labrador Retrievers.
Study Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—131 Labrador Retrievers with unilateral
RCCL and injury to the medial meniscus and 17 clinically
normal Labrador Retrievers.
Procedure—Affected dogs had partial or complete
medial meniscectomy and lateral suture stabilization
(LSS), intracapsular stabilization (ICS), or tibial
plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Limb function
was measured before surgery and 2 and 6 months
after surgery. Treated dogs were evaluated to
determine the probability that they could be differentiated
from clinically normal dogs and tested to
determine the likelihood that they achieved
Results—No difference was found between LSS or
TPLO groups, but dogs treated with ICS had significantly
lower ground reaction forces at 2 and 6
months. Compared with clinically normal dogs only,
14.9% of LSS-, 15% of ICS-, and 10.9% of TPLO-treated
dogs had normal limb function. Improvement was
seen in only 15% of dogs treated via ICS, 34% treated
via TPLO, and 40% treated via LSS.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical technique
can influence limb function after surgery.
Labrador Retrievers treated via LSS, ICS, or TPLO for
repair for of RCCL and medial meniscal injury managed
with partial or complete meniscectomy infrequently
achieve normal function. Results of LSS and TPLO are
similar and superior to ICS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:232–236)
To measure the mitral annulus in dogs. Our hypothesis was that mitral measurement would be possible and consistent among observers using CT.
Thoracic CT scans of dogs without known heart disease.
Five trained investigators measured 4 aspects of the mitral valve and the fourth thoracic vertebrae (T4) length using multiplanar reformatting tools. Ten randomly chosen animals were measured by all investigators to determine interobserver reliability.
There were 233 CT scans eligible for inclusion. Dogs weighed 2 to 96 kg (mean, 28.1 kg), with a variety of breeds represented. Golden Retrievers (n = 28) and Labrador Retrievers (n = 37) were overrepresented. The intraclass correlations were all greater than 0.9, showing excellent agreement between observers. The means and SDs of each measurement were as follows: trigone-to-trigone distance, 17.2 ± 4.7 mm; the remaining circumference, 79.0 ± 17.5 mm; commissure-to-commissure distance, 30.8 ± 6.5 mm; septal leaflet-to-lateral leaflet distance, 26.3 ± 6.0 mm; T4 length, 16.9 ± 3.1 mm; and the total circumference normalized by T4, 5.7 ± 0.7 mm.
This study provides information that may help in the development of future treatment for mitral valve dysfunction and subsequent annular enlargement.