Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Walter S. Tyler x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

SUMMARY

Interstitial and bronchointerstitial pulmonary patterns are commonly observed in thoracic radiographs of Thoroughbreds. Prominent interstitial and bronchointerstitial pulmonary patterns are observed in clinically normal horses, and in horses with respiratory tract disease. Until recently, the relevance of these pulmonary patterns was not known. Previous studies indicated that bronchiolitis, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial metaplasia, and bronchial arteriolar recruitment correlated strongly with the prominence of the interstitial and bronchointerstitial pulmonary patterns observed radiographically. We examined the content and distribution of collagen in the lungs of 7 clinically normal Thoroughbreds in race training. After standardized fixation, lung tissue was treated with a compound that selectively stains collagen. Standard morphometric techniques were used to determine the volume density of parenchymal tissue and parenchymal airspace, mean linear intercept (estimate of alveolar size), alveolar surface area-to-volume ratio, percentage of parenchyma composed of collagen, percentage of airway wall composed of collagen, and airway wall thickness. These values were compared with radiographic and histopathologic scores obtained from the same horses. The volume density of parenchymal tissue and small airway wall thickness correlated strongly with the prominence of the bronchial and bronchointerstitial pulmonary patterns observed radiographically. Small airway thickness was also highly correlated with the perceived prominence of the interstitial pulmonary patterns observed radiographically, and morphometric estimates of parenchymal tissue and parenchymal collagen. There were also strong correlations between the volume density of parenchymal tissue, the percentage of parenchymal collagen, peribronchiolar mononuclear cell infiltrates, and bronchiolar mucosal plication estimates. In horses with more prominent bronchiolar mucosal plication, there was a strong direct relation to the observed prominence of peribronchiolar and submucosal blood vessels, and the bronchial and bronchointerstitial patterns observed radiographically. Horses with prominent peribronchiolar mononuclear cell infiltrates also had more obvious interstitial and bronchointerstitial pulmonary patterns observed radiographically. There also was a direct correlation between the percentage of parenchymal collagen and the observed prominence of peribronchiolar and submucosal blood vessels in these horses. In all horses, there was a strong negative correlation between the estimated average alveolar size and the observed severity of the vascular and bronchial patterns observed radiographically.

Four horses with the greatest estimated airway wall and interalveolar collagen had more prominent interstitial and bronchointerstitial densities and histopathologic evidence of bronchiolitis. These horses had evidence of epithelial basement membrane disruption, with disorganized collagen fibers running between the adventitial layer and the epithelial basement membrane. Amounts of collagen were greater in the adventitia and interalveolar septa, with the fibers appearing larger and more coarse and disorganized. In horses with the greatest percentage of interalveolar septal collagen, accumulations of collagen were larger in the interalveolar septal tips. These findings suggest that horses with prominent interstitial and bronchointerstitial pulmonary patterns radiographically have undergone previous episodes of pulmonary injury, which has resulted in deposition of increased amounts of collagen in interalveolar septa and airway walls.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Seven horses (4 anesthetized and 3 awake) and 2 ponies (anesthetized) were studied to evaluate the high sensitivity of the pulmonary circulation of the horse to various blood-borne particles, and to establish the presence of intravascular macrophages in the lung. Pulmonary and systemic pressures and cardiac output before and during particle injection were measured in some animals. An anesthetized foal had a large increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (32 and 34 mm of Hg) within 1 minute of IV administration of small test doses of radioactively labeled liposomes (2.5 μmol/kg of body weight) or a 1% suspension of blue pigment (0.3 ml/kg), respectively. Quantitative real-time gamma camera imaging of the foal revealed high retention of the labeled liposomes during the first pass through the lungs; retention persisted throughout the experiment. Postmortem analysis revealed 55 and 47% lung retention of liposomes and blue pigment, respectively. The 2 anesthetized ponies had increased pulmonary artery pressure of 34 ± 7 mm of Hg, decreased cardiac output, and 42% lung retention after administration of 1% blue pigment (0.2 ml/kg), whereas 3 awake horses had increased pressure of 28 ± 9 mm of Hg after 1.8 × 108 (1.8-μm-diameter) latex microspheres/kg. None of the injected particles caused vascular obstruction, and they do not cause pulmonary vascular reactivity in species that lack pulmonary intravascular macrophages. Finally, 3 horses (1 anesthetized and 2 awake) were infused Iv with small doses of the blue pigment, and their lungs were perfusion-fixed to identify specific labeling of the pulmonary intravascular macrophages. These cells were fully differentiated macrophages, contained blue pigment in phagocytes, and were tightly adherent to the pulmonary capillary endothelium. At this time, horses (order Perissodactyla) are the only species outside the mammalian order Artiodactyla (sheep, pig, cattle) documented to have reactive intravascular macrophages. Compared with other species, low doses of particles induced marked hemodynamic responses; horses appear to be more sensitive to IV administered particles than are other species studied.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The ultrastructural injury that develops sequentially in the ascending colon during experimentally induced ischemia was examined in 6 halothane-anesthetized horses. Colonic ischemia was created by 2 types of vascular occlusion 24 cm proximal and distal to the pelvic flexure.

In all horses, transmural vascular compression was created. The colonic venous circulation was obstructed in 3 horses, whereas in the other 3 horses, arterial and venous circulation was obstructed. Two additional horses were anesthetized as controls for determination of any morphologic alterations associated with the experimental protocol.

Full-thickness colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from the antimesenteric border of the pelvic flexure at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.25, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, and 5 hours during occlusion, and were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Morphologic alterations did not develop in the colon of control horses. Mucosal congestion was observed by light microscopy in the colon of horses with experimentally induced ischemia, but congestion developed early in those with obstructed colonic venous circulation, compared with those having arterial and venous obstruction. Inter- and intracellular vacuolation and loss of staining initially resulted in groups of 3 to 5 superficial luminal epithelial cells. Alterations in the glandular epithelium lagged behind those in the superficial epithelium, but were observed in both groups by 2 hours of obstruction. These changes progressed to 100% sloughing of all epithelium by 4.5 to 5 hours.

The initial cellular alterations, which were observed by transmission electron microscopy, developed at 0.25 hour in horses with colonic venous obstruction and was characterized by inter- and intracellular edema. By 1 hour in horses with colonic venous obstruction, vacuoles were observed within the basal lamina and some vacuoles contained intracellular organelles. These cellular changes were followed by increases in the intercellular gap and breaks between degenerating and more normal-appearing superficial epithelium, which led to sloughing of the epithelium. Endocrine cells by 1 hour also had evidence of ischemic injury.

Injury to the vascular circulation, including congestion and platelet accumulations within the mucosal capillaries was apparent by 0.25 hour in horses with venous obstruction. By 1 to 1.5 hours in both groups of horses with experimentally induced ischemia, loss of vascular integrity and leukocyte migration frequently were observed. Platelets, proteinaceous material, and cellular debris continued to accumulate, and by 2.25 hour capillary plugging frequently was observed. These results indicated that the initial ultrastructural injury in the ischemic colon consisted of degenerative changes in epithelial cells, which led to sloughing of degenerating and necrotic cells. Although injury between the 2 types of vascular obstruction differed, end results were similar. Ischemic vascular injury may lead to further vascular thrombosis and necrosis, resulting in an irreversible injury or contribute to difficulty in medically managing horses with natural ischemia during the perioperative period.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research