Objective—To develop an epiduroscopic technique for use in standing cattle and describe the endoscopically visible anatomic structures of the epidural space in the sacrococcygeal area.
Animals—6 healthy nonlactating, nonpregnant cows (mean ± SD age, 60 ± 18.5 months; mean weight, 599.7 ± 63.87 kg) and 3 bovine cadavers.
Procedures—Cadavers were used to allow familiarization with the equipment and refinement of the technique. Following these experiences, procedures were performed in live animals. Each cow was restrained in a stock. After sedation with xylazine (0.03 mg/kg, IV), 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg) was injected epidurally in the first intercoccygeal or the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space. By use of an introducer set (guidewire and dilation trocar and shaft), a flexible endoscope (length, 75 cm; diameter, 2.3 mm) was inserted through the dilation shaft into the epidural space. To obtain an optimal view, small amounts of air were insufflated into the epidural space through the working channel of the endoscope via a syringe with special filter.
Results—Anatomic structures of the epidural space that were viewed by means of the endoscopic procedure included blood vessels, connective tissue, fat, nerves, and the spinal dura mater. No adverse events were detected during epiduroscopy, and it was tolerated well by all 6 cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In ruminants, epidural structures can be viewed via endoscopy. Such epiduroscopic procedures may be useful in anatomic studies as well as for the diagnosis of disease or therapeutic interventions in ruminants.
Objective—To evaluate 3-dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography
of the bovine mammary gland, particularly
of the teat.
Animals—6 lactating cows.
Procedures—Clinical and ultrasonographic examinations
of mammary glands of each cow were performed.
Teats were removed from a slaughtered cow
and examined via ultrasonography. All scans were
performed by use of a sensorless standard transducer
(8.5 to 10 MHz linear array). The 2-dimensional data
acquired were downloaded to an off-line system, and
software was used to digitize each image and produce
a 3-D block of digitized information. The selected
anatomic area was displayed as a 3-D volume
Results—Good-quality, 3-D views of the entire mammary
gland were acquired by obtaining sections
through the glandular parenchyma, gland cistern, teat
cistern, and teat canal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—3-D ultrasonography
allows perspective images of the mammary
gland to be obtained. Many scanners routinely
used in veterinary practice have the resolution
required to produce satisfactory images, and the cost
of refitting a standard ultrasonographic unit with 3-D
software is affordable; however, the cost of a volume
transducer with a positioning system and mechanical
sweep strategy may be prohibitive. Three-dimensional
ultrasonography is a new imaging technique that
has promising applications in many fields of veterinary
medicine. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1159–1163)
Objective—To evaluate a laparoscopic technique for implantation of a urinary catheter in the right paramedian area in male sheep and to determine feasibility, benefits, and risks for this technique.
Animals—6 healthy male sheep (mean ± SD body weight, 42.16 ± 11.95 kg [92.75 ± 26.29 lb]).
Procedures—Each sheep was anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. A 10-mm laparoscope was inserted in the right paramedian area between the xiphoid and preputial orifice. After creation of capnoperitoneum, grasping forceps were inserted in the left paramedian area at the level of the teats and used to immobilize the urinary bladder. A pigtail balloon catheter was implanted transcutaneously in the right paramedian area between the preputial orifice and teats and directed into the urinary bladder by use of laparoscopic guidance. The catheter was removed 10 days after implantation. Fourteen days after initial surgery, a second laparoscopy was performed to evaluate pathologic changes.
Results—Inadvertent insertion of the first trocar into the rumen of 1 sheep was the only intraoperative complication encountered. Laparoscopic-assisted implantation of the urinary catheter was successfully performed in all sheep. No postoperative complications were detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopic-assisted implantation of a urinary catheter in the right paramedian area was successfully performed and may be a feasible method for use in sheep. This method can be considered as an alternative to tube cystotomy performed by laparotomy.