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  • Author or Editor: W. Rich Redding x
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Objective—To determine prevalence and risk factors for development of ileus of the large intestine after surgery in horses, identified by reduced postoperative fecal output (RPFO).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—37 horses that developed RPFO after undergoing general anesthesia for reasons unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract.

Procedure—Fecal output was obtained from medical records as number of defecations per 24-hour period after surgery; RPFO was defined as ≤ 3 defecations per 24-hour period after surgery. The reference population included 48 horses that defecated ≥ 4 times during the same period. Demographic, clinical, and surgical variables were evaluated for their association with development of RPFO by use of logistic regression analysis.

Results—Ten (12%) horses, all of which had RPFO, developed signs of colic after surgery. Horses ≥ 5 years old that underwent orthopedic procedures of > 60 minutes’ duration and that did not receive phenylbutazone after surgery were at significant risk for developing RPFO.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that after surgery unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract in horses, there is an intermediate clinical phase characterized by reduced fecal output preceding overt signs of colic. Recognition of RPFO may reduce morbidity and mortality of such horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:414–420)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To evaluate pharmacokinetics of once daily IV administration of gentamicin sulfate to adult horses that had abdominal surgery.


Prospective study.


28 adult horses that underwent abdominal surgery for colic.


14 horses were treated with each dosage of gentamicin (ie, 6.6 or 4 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) and blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. Plasma gentamicin concentrations were measured by use of a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Pharmacokinetic analysis measured the elimination half-life, volume of distribution, and gentamicin total systemic clearance. Treatment outcome, CBC, and serum creatinine concentrations were recorded.


1 horse in the high-dosage group died. All other horses successfully recovered, and did not develop bacterial infection or have evidence of drug toxicosis resulting in renal injury. Mean pharmacokinetic variables for gentamicin administration at a high or low dosage (ie, 6.6 or 4 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) were half-life of 1.47 and 1.61 hours, volume of distribution of 0.17 and 0.17 L/kg, and systemic clearance of 1.27 and 1.2 ml/kg/min, respectively. Mean serum creatinine concentration was 1.74 and 1.71 for the high and low dosages, respectively, and serum creatinine concentration was not correlated with gentamicin clearance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Gentamicin administration at a dosage of 4 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours, will result in plasma concentrations that are adequate against susceptible bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≤ 2.0 μg/ml. Gentamicin administration at a calculated dosage of 6.8 mg/kg, IV, every 24 hours will result in optimum plasma concentrations against susceptible bacteria with a MIC of ≤ 4.0 μg/ml. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:503–506)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association