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  • Author or Editor: W. Grant Guilford x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To develop a noninvasive method to detect disaccharide malabsorption in dogs by measuring hydrogen concentration ([H2]) in exhaled breath before and after experimentally induced disaccharide malabsorption.

Animals

8 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

[H2] was measured every 30 minutes for 8 hours after administration of disaccharide solutions (lactose, 0.5 g/kg of body weight; lactose, 1.0 g/kg; sucrose, 2.0 g/kg; maltose, 1.5 g/kg; and lactose [0.5 g/kg] and sucrose [2.0 g/kg]) to determine reference ranges of [H2] for each solution, which were compared with [H2] in dogs with experimentally induced disaccharide malabsorption. To induce disaccharide malabsorption, dogs were given a mild overdose of lactose (1.5 g/kg) or a disaccharidase inhibitor. In the latter experiment, acarbose (10 mg/kg, PO) was given with the combination of lactose (0.5 g/kg) and sucrose (2 g/kg), and with maltose (1.5 g/kg).

Results

Overdosing with lactose resulted in [H2] persistently outside the reference range for lactose in 5 of 8 dogs. Acarbose administration resulted in [H2] persistently outside the reference range in 7 of 8 dogs that received a combination of sucrose and lactose but did not consistently affect [H2] after administration of maltose.

Conclusions

Disaccharide malabsorption resulted in [H2] outside the reference ranges in most of the adult dogs studied, suggesting that the technique may be useful in detecting naturally occurring disaccharidase deficiency. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:836–840)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objectives

To determine accuracy of abdominal radiography in locating radiopaque markers in the gastrointestinal tract and to assess correlation between gastric emptying rate of radiopaque markers and that of canned food.

Animals

17 healthy dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm markers and ten 5-mm markers mixed in sufficient food to meet 25% of their daily caloric intake. They were then euthanatized by administration of an overdose of barbiturate at 1, 2, 5, 8, or 12 hours after eating and the abdomen was radiographed. The stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were then separated and radiographed in isolation. The wet and dry weights of the stomach contents were determined. The apparent and actual locations of the markers and the gastric emptying rates of markers, wet matter, and dry matter were compared, using rank correlation.

Results

All comparisons indicated significant (P < 0.025), high correlation coefficients (> 0.92). The mean difference between the apparent and actual locations of the markers was < 3% for all comparisons. The mean difference between the percentage of small markers and large markers retained in the stomach and that of dry matter was 7.8 (SD, 6.2; range, 0 to 18)% and 11.9 (SD, 12.5; range, 0 to 44)%, respectively.

Conclusions

The gastric emptying and orocolic transit rates of the markers were accurately predicted by abdominal radiography. The gastric emptying rate of the diet and the small markers and, to a lesser extent, the large markers was closely correlated.

Clinical Relevance

When fed with a special canned food diet, radiopaque markers can be used to assess the gastric emptying rate of food with sufficient accuracy for clinical purposes. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1359–1363)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine plasma clearance kinetics and imaging biodistribution of indium 111-labeled transferrin (111In-TF) in dogs.

Animals

7 adult dogs.

Procedure

After 30 minutes’ incubation of 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of 111InCl3 with 1 ml of serum (n = 3) or 1 ml of plasma (n = 4) at 37 C, dogs were given autologous 111In-TF IV, and serial blood samples and right lateral and dorsal scintigraphic images were obtained immediately and 1, 3, 5, 9, 22, and 48 hours later. Blood and plasma clearance kinetics were determined from a least-squares, nonlinear fit of the sample radioactivity data. Blood radioactivity was compared with plasma radioactivity to determine the extent of cellular labeling. Imaging biodistribution was characterized by subjective and objective assessment of blood pool, liver, gastrointestinal (abdomen) tract, kidney, and bone marrow activity.

Results

111In-TF plasma clearance was best described by a biexponential fit, with early and late clearance half-times of 6 and 49 hours, respectively. The 111In was not redistributed between transferrin (plasma proteins) and blood cells. Imaging studies documented progressive liver and bone marrow uptake of the 111In-TF over 48 hours. Some radioactivity was evident in the colon of 1 dog on 48-hour images. Decay-corrected count rates (counts/pixel/mCi/kg/min) within the abdominal region of interest increased over the 48-hour imaging period and exceeded the blood pool (cardiac) activity at 20 hours after injection.

Conclusion

111In-TF has a biexponential plasma clearance in clinically normal dogs, with early and late clearance half-time of 6 and 49 hours, respectively. Scintigraphically, 111In-TF localizes to sites of iron storage (bone marrow and liver) over time. Some loss of 111In-TF via the gastrointestinal tract may be seen on late 48-hour images.

Clinical Relevance

111In-TF appears to be a viable radiopharmaceutical for use in dogs, with specific application for identifying those with protein-losing enteropathy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1188–1192)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research