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  • Author or Editor: W. Emmett Braselton x
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Abstract

Objective—To quantify and compare intracellular magnesium concentrations (Mgi) in clinically normal dogs (control dogs) and dogs that have gastric dilatation- volvulus (GDV dogs) and to determine whether there is a difference in Mgi and serum magnesium concentrations (Mgs) between GDV dogs with and without cardiac arrhythmias.

Animals—41 control dogs and 21 GDV dogs.

Procedure—Rectus abdominis muscle specimens were obtained from control and GDV dogs for determination of Mgi. Blood samples were obtained from GDV dogs for determination of Mgs, and dogs were monitored for 48 hours for cardiac arrhythmias. Muscle specimens were frozen at –40 C, oven dried at 95 C, and digested with concentrated nitric acid. Multielemental analyses were performed by simultaneous/ sequential inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy with fixed-cross flow nebulization. The Mgi was standardized to sulfur content to correct for the amount of fat and fascia in the muscle specimen. Mean (± SEM) values were recorded in parts per million (ppm).

Results—There were no significant differences in Mgi between control (627 ± 11.1 ppm) and GDV (597 ± 20.5 ppm) dogs, in Mgi between GDV dogs with (590 ± 34 ppm) and without (584 ± 29 ppm) cardiac arrhythmias, and in Mgs between GDV dogs with (1.77 ± 0.26 ppm) and without (1.51 ± 0.09 ppm) cardiac arrhythmias. There was no correlation between Mgs and Mgi ( R2 =0.0001).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that Mg depletion is not pathophysiologically important in dogs with GDV and does not play a role in the cardiac arrhythmias detected in these patients. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1415–1417)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether pharmacokinetic analysis of data derived from a single IV dose of iohexol could be used to predict creatinine clearance and evaluate simplified methods for predicting serum clearance of iohexol with data derived from 2 or 3 blood samples in clinically normal foals.

Animals—10 healthy foals.

Procedure—Serum disposition of iohexol and exogenous creatinine clearance was determined simultaneously in each foal (5 males and 5 females). A 3-compartment model of iohexol serum disposition was selected via standard methods. Iohexol clearance calculated from the model was compared with creatinine clearance. Separate limited-sample models were created with various combinations of sample times from the terminal slope of the plasma versus time profile for iohexol. Correction factors were determined for the limited-sample models, and iohexol clearance calculated via each method was compared with exogenous creatinine clearance by use of method comparison techniques.

Results—Mean exogenous creatinine clearance was 2.17 mL/min/kg. The disposition of iohexol was best described by a 3-compartment open model. Mean clearance value for iohexol was 2.15 mL/min/kg and was not significantly different from mean creatinine clearance. A method for predicting serum iohexol clearance based on a 2-sample protocol (3- and 4-hour samples) was developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Iohexol clearance can be used to predict exogenous creatinine clearance and can be determined from 2 blood samples taken after IV injection of iohexol. Appropriate correction factors for adult horses and horses with abnormal glomerular filtration rate need to be determined. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1486–1490)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether pamidronate di-sodium can reduce vitamin D3-induced hypercalcemia in dogs and whether combination treatment with calcitonin is more effective than treatment with pamidronate alone.

Animals

20 clinically normal male Beagles.

Procedure

All dogs were given 8 mg of cholecalciferol (CCF)/kg of body weight once orally, then were assigned randomly to 4 groups of 5 dogs each. Dogs were given 0.9% NaCl solution IV (group 1), calcitonin SC and 0.9% NaCl solution IV (group 2), pamidronate and 0.9% NaCl solution IV (group 3), or a combination of all 3 agents (group 4). Dogs were observed for 28 days, and serial blood and urine samples were collected for determination of serum biochemical, electrolyte, and 25(OH)D3 values, CBC, and urine mineral excretion. Samples of kidney, stomach, lung, aorta, liver, duodenum, and brain were evaluated by light microscopy and quantitative mineral analysis.

Results

Two dogs in group 1 were euthanatized 4 days after CCF administration because of severe clinical signs of disease. Dogs in group 3 lost less weight and had significantly lower serum phosphorus, total and ionized calcium, and urinary zinc concentrations, compared with dogs in group 1. On day 4, serum urea nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in dogs of groups 3 and 4, compared with dogs in group 1. Mild to moderate mineralization of kidneys and stomach were observed in the 2 group-1 dogs euthanatized on day 4.

Conclusions

Pamidronate administration effectively prevents CCF-induced hypercalcemia and mineralization of soft tissues.

Clinical Relevance

Pamidronate is a potentially useful antidote against CCF toxicosis in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1092-1097)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To document and determine changes in the mineral profiles of sera and mammary secretions from a population of periparturient mares.

Animals

18 clinically normal periparturient Arabian broodmares.

Procedure

Inductively coupled argon emission spectroscopy was used to measure Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn concentrations in sera and mammary secretions of periparturient mares. In addition, S was measured in mammary secretions.

Results

Serum concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, and Zn remained constant throughout late pregnancy and the first 7 days of lactation. Compared with values on day 11 before foaling, mammary fluid concentrations of Ca, Cu, K, Mg, P, S, and Zn increased prior to parturition and all element concentrations, except Ca, decreased with the onset of lactation. In contrast, Na concentrations in mammary secretions decreased precipitously as parturition approached. Iron concentrations in mammary secretions remained relatively constant up to the time of parturition, decreased at parturition, and remained constant during lactation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Prior to foaling, increasing concentrations of Ca, Cu, K, Mg, P, S, or Zn in mammary secretions in concert with precipitous decreases in Na concentrations may provide a predictive index of impending parturition in the mare and a means of assessing fetal readiness for birth. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:376–378)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research