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  • Author or Editor: W. D. Hueston x
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Summary

A telephone survey was conducted of 50 randomly selected Ohio-licensed veterinarians engaged in dairy practice. The survey's purpose was to determine the extent of mastitis control services offered by practitioners and to assess their utilization of milk somatic cell count (scc) data on individual cows available from the Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA). During the preceding year, 96% (48/50) of practitioners surveyed had performed bacteriologic culture of milk samples. Practitioners were twice as likely to have performed culture on milk from mastitic cows that failed to respond to treatment as they were to have performed culture for purposes of identifying pathogen trends within a herd. Veterinarians in predominantly dairy practices were more likely to have completed bacteriologic examination of milk in their own laboratories than were veterinarians who were engaged in <50% dairy practice (P = 0.016). Most veterinarians (83%) reported that coagulase test results were available or that Staphylococcus aureus was differentiated from other staphylococcal species. Streptococcus agalactiae was not differentiated from other streptococcal species by 35% of practitioners surveyed.

For veterinarians with clients enrolled in the dhia, 91% (43/47) reported looking at, discussing, or otherwise using the dhia records. Eighty-one percent (35/43) of veterinarians who had clients using services from the dhia reported that clients also received individual cow milk scc results. Veterinarians engaged in predominantly dairy practice expressed a greater familiarity with the linear score method of scc reporting than did veterinarians whose practices were <50% dairy (P = 0.085); however, both groups reported a preference for raw scc data. Veterinarian response regarding potential use of dhia scc data was compared with that obtained in a companion survey of Ohio dairy producers. Veterinarians were more likely than producers to consider use of scc from individual cows to select cows for culture and to establish a milking order. Although several results of our survey indicated current high veterinary involvement in mastitis control and dhia record utilization, other trends supported concerns regarding the future of veterinarian involvement in food animal health management.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To establish whether Mycobacterium paratuberculosis could be cultured from Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline solution (dpbss) and to test 3 sampling methods, dpbss supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum was inoculated with M paratuberculosis at concentrations of 104, 103, 102, 101, and 100 colony-forming units/ml. The inoculated media was sampled after mixing, after centrifugation, and after centrifugation and decontamination with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride. The samples were inoculated onto 3 slants of Herrolds egg yolk medium supplemented with sodium pyruvate and mycobactin J and 1 slant without mycobactin J. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated following all 3 sampling methods for all concentrations. Treatment with hexadecylpyridinium chloride decreased the number of colonies isolated.

To test the efficacy of a 10-step wash procedure for removing M paratuberculosis from bovine ova, washed zona pellucida intact bovine ova were incubated in dpbss supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum containing concentrations of 104, 103, 102, 101, and 100 colony-forming units of M paratuberculosis/ml for 12 hours at 22 C. Ten zona pellucida intact ova were removed from each concentration and washed by passing through 10 changes of dpbss supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum. The media from each wash step was inoculated onto slants of Herrolds egg yolk medium. The ova were included with the tenth wash step. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was isolated from 1 of 10 tenth-wash steps at the 104 concentration and 5 of 10 tenth-wash steps at 103.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Lack of a standardized information technology management strategy has resulted in state and federal information systems evolving separately, rather than in tandem. Absence of an information management strategy will eventually affect regulatory program management, epidemiologic research, and domestic and international livestock trade. Producers will ultimately pay the price for the lack of regulatory coordination of US animal health and disease information. The longer the development of state and federal information technology management strategies is postponed, the more cost-, labor-, and time-intensive correcting the deficiency will be. Development of a national information resources management environment is the first step in constructing state and federal information technology strategies.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Pseudorabies (pr) outbreak-investigation forms from 10 states having the most pr-infected herds were evaluated for agreement in question response-data type, information intent, and outbreak information categories. A question randomly selected from an investigation form had 0.6304 probability of being unique to a single state, and 0.0062 probability of being common to all states. Analysis of outbreak forms, on the basis of information intent, revealed that the probability of a randomly selected question being derived from an information category unique to a single state was 0.0323, whereas the probability of a question being derived from an information category shared by all states was 0.1935. A telephone survey revealed that state pr control officials did not believe additional research on between-herd spread of pr was necessary to successfully complete the eradication program. However, officials believed a better understanding of pr risk factors would enhance program effectiveness and build producer confidence.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Nine dairy herds (mean size, 149 cows) with bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts of < 300,000 cells/ml and > 80% of cows with Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear somatic cell counts ≤ 4 were selected for study. Each herd was monitored for 12 consecutive months. Duplicate quarter-milk specimens were collected from each cow for bacteriologic culturing at beginning of lactation, cessation of lactation, and at the time of each clinical episode of mastitis. Streptococcus agalactiae was never isolated and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from < 1% of all quarters. There were 554 episodes of clinical mastitis. During the year of study, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis varied from 15.6 to 63.7% of cows among the 9 herds. Mean costs per cow per year in herd for mastitis prevention were: $10 for paper towels, $3 for nonlactating cow treatment, and $10 for teat disinfectants. Mean cost associated with clinical mastitis was $107/episode. Approximately 84% ($90) of the costs attributed to a clinical episode were associated with decreased milk production and nonsalable milk. Costs of medication and professional veterinary fees per clinical episode varied Significantly among the 9 herds. Three of the herds did not have a veterinarian treat a clinical episode of mastitis during the year of study even though 2 of these herds had the first and third highest incidence rates of clinical mastitis. When calculated on a per cow in herd basis, mean costs of $40/cow/year were attributed to clinical mastitis. Our findings suggest that herds that have effectively controlled mastitis caused by contagious pathogens may still have substantial economic losses as a result of clinical mastitis and that losses and even rates of clinical mastitis may vary considerably among such herds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association