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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In Holstein cattle, an inherited disease has been recognized recently in which leukocytes lack surface glycoproteins termed β2 integrins, which are important in cell adhesion processes. This disease is the homologue of leukocyte adhesion deficiency in human beings and has been termed bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. The molecular basis of this disease is failure to produce normal CD18. The gene encoding bovine CD18 and its abnormal mutation have been sequenced, allowing specific diagnosis of the condition by DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction followed by specific endonuclease digestion. This test was applied to formalin-fixed archival tissues from 18 cattle that had been admitted to the veterinary medical teaching hospital between 1975 and 1991 and that had had persistent and severe neutrophilia. Blood samples were collected from 2 additional cattle, and leukocytes from these samples also were tested. Fourteen cattle were confirmed to have been homozygous for the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency gene. Cattle with this condition had ranged in age from 2 weeks to 8 months at admission. They typically had had chronic bacterial infections that had failed to respond to or had recurred after conventional treatment. Consistent findings in these cattle included signs of bronchopneumonia, gingivitis, periodontitis, and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Severe neutrophilia, usually without a left shift, was a hallmark of the disease; consistent clinical biochemical findings included hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, and hypoglycemia. This disease is important because it mimics common calfhood diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhea, but is ultimately consistently fatal before adulthood.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To compare initial clinical appearances, healing mechanisms, risk factors, and outcomes of horses with fungal keratitis.


Retrospective analysis.


52 horses (53 eyes) with fungal keratitis.


Medical records and clinical photographs of eyes were reviewed. Keratomycoses were categorized on the basis of clinical appearance at initial examination and pattern of healing.


Five distinct forms of mycotic keratitis were recognized. Of 53 affected eyes, 34 (64%) retained sight and had varying degrees of corneal scarring after treatment, 6 (11%) had a cosmetic appearance but were blind, and 13 (25%) were enucleated. Bacterial-like ulcers were the most frequent type and the most difficult for predicting outcome. Eyes affected by superficial fungal keratitis were likely to be chronically infected and to require debridement and extended treatment but usually healed with minimal scarring. Keratomycosis with a surrounding furrow resulted in a grave prognosis. Aspergillus organisms were isolated from 9 of 10 such eyes. Cake-frosting material was a positive prognostic sign. Fungal corneal stromal abscesses tended to be caused by yeast.

Clinical Implications

This information will aid practitioners in recognizing various forms of fungal keratitis and guide them when making therapeutic decisions and prognoses for affected horses. (J AM Med Assoc 1998;213:105-112)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association