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  • Author or Editor: Vjekoslav Miletic x
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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of butorphanol tartrate and buprenorphine hydrochloride on withdrawal threshold to a noxious stimulus in conscious African grey parrots.

Animals

29 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus and Psittacus erithacus timneh).

Procedure

Birds were fitted with an electrode on the medial metatarsal region of the right leg, placed into a test box, and allowed to acclimate. An electrical stimulus (range, 0.0 to 1.46 mA) was delivered to each bird’s foot through an aluminum perch. A withdrawal response was recorded when the bird lifted its foot from the perch or vigorously flinched its wings. Baseline threshold to a noxious electrical stimulus was determined. Birds then were randomly assigned to receive an IM injection of saline (0.9% NaCI) solution, butorphanol (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg), and threshold values were determined again.

Results

Butorphanol significantly increased threshold value, but saline solution or buprenorphine did not significantly change threshold values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Butorphanol had an analgesic effect, significantly increasing the threshold to electrical stimuli in African grey parrots. Buprenorphine at the dosage used did not change the threshold to electrical stimulus. Butorphanol provided an analgesic response in half of the birds tested. Butorphanol would be expected to provide analgesia to African grey parrots in a clinical setting. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1218–1221)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop a technique for objective assessment of modulation of nociperception in conscious perching birds.

Animals

31 adult African grey parrots.

Procedure

Birds were randomly assigned to receive saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n = 10), butorphanol tartrate (11), or buprenorphine hydrochloride (10), IM. Birds were fitted with a surface electrode on the medial metatarsus of 1 leg. An electrical stimulus was delivered to the bird’s foot through an aluminum surface on half of the perch. The alternate side of the perch delivered a noxious thermal stimulus. A withdrawal response to either stimulus was recorded when the bird lifted its foot or vigorously flinched its wings.

Results

Responses to thermal stimuli were extremely variable during baseline testing and after administration of drugs. Thus, significant differences were not detected after drug injection. In contrast, responses to an electrical stimulus were predictable with much less variation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

This method and device allowed for the reliable determination of withdrawal threshold in perching birds. Use of this technique for objective assessment of modulation of nociperception in conscious perching birds will enable assessment of analgesic drugs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1213–1217)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that butorphanol or morphine induces antinociception with minimal respiratory depression in conscious red-eared slider turtles.

Design—Prospective crossover study.

Animals—37 adult male and female red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta).

Procedures—Antinociception (n = 27 turtles) and respiratory (10 turtles) experiments were performed. Infrared heat stimuli were applied to the plantar surface of turtle limbs. Thermal withdrawal latencies were measured before and at intervals after SC administration of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, butorphanol tartrate (2.8 or 28 mg/kg [1.27 or 12.7 mg/lb]), or morphine sulfate (1.5 or 6.5 mg/kg [0.68 or 2.95 mg/lb]). Ventilation was assessed in freely swimming turtles before and after SC administration of saline solution, butorphanol (28 mg/kg), or morphine (1.5 mg/kg).

Results—For as long as 24 hours after injection of saline solution or either dose of butorphanol, thermal withdrawal latencies among turtles did not differ. Low- and high-dose morphine injections increased latencies significantly by 8 hours. Ventilation was not altered by saline solution administration, was temporarily depressed by 56% to 60% for 1 to 2 hours by butorphanol (28 mg/kg) administration, and was significantly depressed by a maximum of 83 ± 9% at 3 hours after morphine (1.5 mg/kg) injection. Butorphanol and morphine depressed ventilation by decreasing breathing frequency.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although widely used in reptile species, butorphanol may not provide adequate antinociception for invasive procedures and caused short-term respiratory depression in red-eared slider turtles. In contrast, morphine apparently provided antinociception but caused long-lasting respiratory depression.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association