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  • Author or Editor: Vivian W. Lau x
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OBJECTIVE To determine the physiochemical properties and pharmacokinetics of 3 midazolam gel formulations following buccal administration to dogs.

ANIMALS 5 healthy adult hounds.

PROCEDURES In phase 1 of a 2-phase study, 2 gel formulations were developed that contained 1% midazolam in a poloxamer 407 (P1) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (H1) base and underwent rheological and in vitro release analyses. Each formulation was buccally administered to 5 dogs such that 0.3 mg of midazolam/kg was delivered. Each dog also received midazolam hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, IV). There was a 3-day interval between treatments. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at predetermined times for 8 hours after drug administration for determination of plasma midazolam concentration and pharmacokinetic analysis. During phase 2, a gel containing 2% midazolam in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose base (H2) was developed on the basis of phase 1 results. That gel was buccally administered such that midazolam doses of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg were delivered. Each dog also received midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, IV). All posttreatment procedures were the same as those for phase 1.

RESULTS The H1 and H2 formulations had lower viscosity, greater bioavailability, and peak plasma midazolam concentrations that were approximately 2-fold as high, compared with those for the P1 formulation. The mean peak plasma midazolam concentration for the H2 formulation was 187.0 and 106.3 ng/mL when the midazolam dose administered was 0.6 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that buccal administration of gel formulations might be a viable alternative for midazolam administration to dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the percentage of cats with a phenobarbital (PB) concentration between 15 and 45 μg/mL that had a ≥ 50% reduction in the number of seizures and to investigate applicability of the 2011 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification system in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—30 cats with suspected or confirmed epilepsy.

Procedures—Medical records for 2004 to 2013 at 3 veterinary hospitals were searched. Information collected included signalment, duration of observation before treatment, frequency of seizures before PB administration, seizure phenotype, dose of PB, serum PB concentration, number of seizures after PB administration, duration of follow-up monitoring, and survival time. A modified 2011 ILAE classification system was applied to all cats.

Results—Seizure control was achieved in 28 of 30 (93%) cats with a serum PB concentration of 15 to 45 μg/mL. This comprised 10 of 11 cats with structural epilepsy, 14 of 15 cats with unknown epilepsy, and 4 of 4 cats with presumptive unknown epilepsy. Thirteen cats had no additional seizures after initiation of PB treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Seizure control was achieved in most cats with a serum PB concentration between 15 and 45 μg/mL, regardless of the cause of the seizures. A modified 2011 ILAE classification was applied to cats with seizures and enabled classification of cats without specific genetic testing and without identified structural or inflammatory disease. This classification system should be incorporated into veterinary neurology nomenclature to standardize communication between veterinarians and improve comparisons among species.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association