Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 29 items for

  • Author or Editor: Virginia B. Reef x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Objective

To determine clinical signs of pericarditis in horses and to determine whether there were any relationships among clinical signs, echocardiographic findings, treatment, and outcome.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

18 horses.

Results

Physical examination was performed on 16 horses. Cardiovascular abnormalities included tachycardia (n = 16), pericardial friction rub (10), venous distention (7), murmur (7), muffled heart sounds (6), weak arterial pulse (6), jugular pulse (6), and edema (5). Twelve horses also had respiratory abnormalities; the most common was dull lung sounds, ventrally, suggestive of pleural effusion (10). Echocardiography was the most important tool for diagnosis of pericarditis. Detection of clinical signs of right-sided heart failure was significantly associated with severe accumulation of pericardial effusion and with detection of cardiac compromise. Severe accumulation of pericardial effusion was also significantly associated with echocardiographic detection of cardiac compromise. Pericarditis was idiopathic in 6 horses, and bacterial in 5. Five horses had nonseptic pericarditis associated with bacterial respiratory disease, and 2 had nonseptic pericarditis associated with viral respiratory disease. Fourteen of the 18 horses were treated specifically for pericarditis; 10 received antimicrobials and 6 with suspected immune-mediated pericarditis received corticosteroids. Pericardial drainage and lavage were performed on 6 horses in which pericardial effusion or fibrin accumulation was compromising cardiac function. Pericarditis resolved in all 14 horses that were treated, and all 14 returned to their prior Intended use.

Clinical Implications

With early detection of disease and aggressive treatment, the prognosis for horses with pericarditis is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:248–253)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

This monthly feature is being sponsored by the Academy of Veterinary Cardiology. Readers of the JAVMA are invited to submit contributions. Contributions should include: (1) a brief description of the case (150 words); (2) good contrast glossy photographs (5 in by 7 in) of tracings, with ECG lead, voltage calibration scale, and paper speed indicated; and (3) a discussion of the abnormality.

Send comments and tracings to Dr. Christophe Lombard, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Box J-126,JHMHC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Sonographic findings correlated with necropsy findings in 8 of 9 horses in which the cranial portion of the mediastinum was evaluated by use of both methods. Cranial mediastinal masses were imaged as multilobular and homogeneously hypoechoic; a complex echogenic pattern was observed with necrosis within the mass. Pleural effusion was a common finding in horses with mediastinal lymphosarcoma. Cytologic evaluation of pleural fluid samples was useful in diagnosis of lymphosarcoma in 10 of 12 horses that had thoracentesis. Sonographic examination of the thorax and cranial portion of the mediastinum can aid in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphosarcoma in horses. Such examination should be performed in horses with clinical signs of cranial vena cava obstruction in which pleural effusion is detected, or when thoracic lymphosarcoma is suspected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Nine horses with (naturally acquired) congestive heart failure were treated with 2.2 μg of digoxin/kg of body weight by the Iv route, followed by 11 μg/kg administered orally every 12 hours thereafter. Furosemide was administered IV concurrently with IV administered digoxin every 12 hours. Serum concentration of digoxin was measured after the first (Iv) and seventh (orally administered) dose.

After Iv administration, digoxin disposition was described by a 2-compartment model, with a rapid distribution phase (t1/2α = 0.17 hour), followed by a slower elimination phase (β = 0.096 ± 0.055 h−1, t1/2β = 7.2 hours, where β is the exponential term from the elimination phase of the concentration vs time curve). Bioavailability after oral administration was 21.2 ± 10.8%. After the seventh orally administered dose, serum concentration of digoxin peaked 1 to 2 hours later, and was 1.9 ± 0.7 ng/ml (mean ± sd). In 4 horses, a second increase in serum digoxin concentration was observed 4 to 8 hours after the initial peak, which possibly was evidence of enterohepatic recycling of the drug.

Response to treatment included reduction in heart rate, peripheral edema, and pulmonary edema, but these could not be attributed to the digoxin alone because the horses were treated concurrently with furosemide.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Ventricular premature depolarizations (vpd) were identified in 21 horses in which unexplained tachycardia or an arrhythmia was detected on auscultation. Horses were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of ecg findings. Seven horses had uniform isolated vpd (group 1); 7 horses had repetitive uniform vpd at a rate <100 vpd/min (group 2); and 7 horses had either multiform vpd, R-on-T, or ≥ 100 vpd/min (group 3). Concurrent systemic disease was identified in 12 horses, 7 of which had gastrointestinal tract disorders. Serum cardiac isoenzyme activities were high in 6 (2 from each group) of 13 horses in which they were measured. Serum electrolyte concentrations were normal in all but 1 of 11 horses in which they were measured.

Antiarrhythmic drugs were given to 9 horses (all of which were in group 2 or group 3), 6 of which converted to sinus rhythm. Two horses that had R-on-T in the ECG died shortly after initiation of antiarrhythmic treatment. An accelerated idioventricular rhythm persisted in 1 horse for at least 8 months and failed to respond to antiarrhythmic drugs. Ventricular premature depolarizations resolved or decreased considerably in frequency in 11 horses without the administration of antiarrhythmic agents. Treatment in these horses included therapy for any underlying systemic disease, corticosteroids, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or stall rest. The remaining horse was euthanatized several hours after hospitalization.

Five horses died or were euthanatized either during hospitalization or several months after being discharged. Myocardial lesions were identified at necropsy in 2 horses.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 46 horses with jugular vein thrombophlebitis that were evaluated ultrasonographically were reviewed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the thrombus within the jugular vein was classified as noncavitating if it had uniform low to medium amplitude echoes, or as cavitating if it was heterogenous with anechoic to hypoechoic areas representing fluid or necrotic areas within the thrombus, and/or hyperechoic areas representing gas. Signs of pain on palpation of the affected vein (P < 0.001), heat over the vein (P = 0.001), and swelling of the vein (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with the ultrasonographic detection of a cavitating lesion. Ultrasonography also was useful for selecting a site for aspiration of a specimen for bacteriologic culturing and susceptibility testing.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association