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  • Author or Editor: Vincent C. Biourge x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare large intestinal transit time (LITT) in dogs of various body sizes and determine whether fecal quality was correlated with LITT.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—LITT was calculated as the difference between total (TTT) and orocecal transit time (OCTT). Minimum and mean OCTTs were determined by use of the sulfasalazine-sulfapyridine method. Minimum TTT was estimated by use of chromium and ferric oxide as color markers, and mean TTT was calculated from the recovery from feces of ingested colored plastic beads. Fecal moisture content was determined and fecal consistency was scored during the same period.

Results—Large-breed dogs had higher fecal moisture content and more watery fecal consistency. No association between body size and OCTT was detected, but there was a positive correlation between body size and mean TTT. Mean LITT increased significantly with body size, from 9.1 ± 1.1 hours in Miniature Poodles to 39.4 ± 1.6 hours for Giant Schnauzers. Significant correlations were detected among mean LITT, mean TTT, and fecal scores, whereas no correlation was observed between fecal moisture content and TTT or LITT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LITT was correlated with fecal consistency in dogs of various body sizes. Mean LITT can be predicted from values for mean TTT in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare gastric emptying time, smallintestinal transit time (SITT), and orocecal transit time (OCTT) of radiopaque markers in dogs varying in age and body size and to determine whether fecal variables (ie, consistency and moisture content) are related to gastrointestinal tract transit times in dogs.

Animals—24 eight-week-old female puppies, including 6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—Gastrointestinal tract transit time experiments were performed at 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks of age. Dogs were fed 30 small radiopaque markers mixed with a meal. Abdominal radiographs were taken. The time at which 50% of the markers had left the stomach (T50) and the time at which the first marker reached the colon were calculated. Fecal moisture content and scoring on the basis of fecal consistency were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Puppies had a shorter mean T50 than adults, and mean OCTT decreased significantly only during growth of large-breed dogs. However mean fecal moisture content significantly increased with age, except in Giant Schnauzers. No effect of body size on T50 was found regardless of age, and no difference was observed between OCTT of small- and large-breed adult dogs. The effect of age on the mean SITT was not significant for any breed. However, a strong positive correlation was recorded between body size and fecal moisture content (r2 = 0.77) or fecal scores (r2 = 0.69) in adult dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age affects T50 in small- and large-breed dogs and OCTT in largebreed dogs. However, body size does not affect T50 or OCTT. A relationship does not exist between gastrointestinal tract transit time and fecal variables in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:677–682)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dietary fat and energy density on body weight gain, body composition, and total energy expenditure (TEE) in neutered and sexually intact cats.

Animals—12 male and 12 female cats

Procedure—Male cats were castrated (castrated male [CM]) or underwent no surgical procedure (sexually intact male [IM]). Female cats underwent ovariectomy (spayed female [SF]) or laparotomy and ligation of both uterine tubes without ovary removal (sexually intact female [IF]). Cats were fed either the low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 26 weeks, with the final allocation consisting of 8 groups: IF-LF, IF-HF, SF-LF, SF-HF, IM-LF, IM-HF, CM-LF, and CM-HF. Mean food intake for each group was recorded daily, and body weight was monitored weekly throughout the study. Body composition and TEE were measured before surgery in week 0 and at the end of the study (week 26) by isotope dilution (double-labelled water).

Results—Neutered cats gained significantly more body fat and body weight (53.80 ± 5.79%) than sexually intact cats (27.11 ± 5.79%) during the study. Body weight gain of neutered cats fed the HF diet was greater than those fed the LF diet. Following correction for body composition, TEE was similar in all groups and no pattern towards increased food intake was evident.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Weight gain in neutered cats was decreased by feeding an LF, low energy-dense diet. To prevent weight gain in cats after neutering, a suitable LF diet should be fed in carefully controlled meals rather than ad libitum. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1708–1713)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of age and body size of dogs on intestinal permeability (unmediated diffusion) as measured by the ratio of urinary lactulose to L-rhamnose (L:R) and absorption (carrier-mediated transport) as measured by the ratio of urinary D-xylose to 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (X:MG) and to determine whether these variables correlated with fecal quality.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—A solution that contained lactulose and rhamnose or xylose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose was administered orally to dogs that were 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks old. Urine was collected 6 hours later, and urinary L:R and X:MG were calculated. Fecal moisture and scoring were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Age and breed did not affect intestinal absorption, and we did not detect a relationship between X:MG and fecal variables. In contrast, we detected significant effects of age and body size on intestinal permeability. Puppies (12 weeks old) and large dogs had higher intestinal permeability than adult (60 weeks old) and small dogs. The increased intestinal permeability in large dogs was associated with lower fecal quality as indicated by the significant positive correlations between L:R and fecal moisture (r, 0.61) and L:R and fecal scores (r, 0.86) in adult dogs.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—These results indicate that age and body size should be considered when assessing intestinal permeability by use of the L:R urinary excretion test in dogs. High intestinal permeability could be a possible cause of poor fecal quality in large dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1323–1328)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare orocecal transit time (OCTT) as assessed by use of the sulfapyridine appearance time in plasma after oral administration of sulfasalazine in dogs of varying age and body size and determine whether OCTT correlates with fecal quality.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles (MP), 6 Standard Schnauzers (SS), 6 Giant Schnauzers (GS), and 6 Great Danes (GD).

Procedure—Determinations of OCTT were made at 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks of age. Dogs were fed sulfasalazine mixed with a meal. Blood samples were then collected for 6 hours. The OCTT was the time from ingestion of the meal to detection of sulfapyridine in plasma. Fecal moisture content and consistency were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Mean OCTT decreased during growth of GS and GD dogs. No correlation was found between OCTT and fecal variables during growth in the 4 breeds. Effect of body size was observed at 12 and 22 weeks of age, with a longer OCTT in GS and GD than in MP and SS dogs. Similar OCTTs were observed at 36 and 60 weeks of age in all breeds, although GS and GD dogs had poorer fecal quality during those periods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An effect of age on OCTT was observed only in large-breed dogs, with longer transit times in puppies (12 weeks old) than in adults (60 weeks old). Mean OCTT is not correlated with body size in adult dogs. No relationship was detected between OCTT and fecal variables in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1105–1109)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research