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- Author or Editor: Vincent Biourge x
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Objective—To assess performance of a portable bioimpedance monitor for measurement of body composition in dogs.
Animals—24 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Percentage body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and with a portable bioimpedance monitor, and body condition score (BCS) was measured by use of a 9-integer scale.
Results—Although the precision of the bioimpedance monitor was good, this varied among dogs. Body position (standing vs sternal) had no effect on bioimpedance results. There was a significant association between results determined via DEXA and bioimpedance, but this association was weaker than between DEXA and BCS. When agreement was assessed via Bland-Altman plot, the bioimpedance monitor under- and overestimated values at high and low body fat percentages, respectively. In 9 dogs, body fat measurements were taken before and after weight loss to determine the proportional loss of tissue mass during weight management. There was a significant difference in the estimated percentage of weight lost as fat between the DEXA and bioimpedance methods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although percentage body fat measured by use of a portable bioimpedance monitor correlated well with values determined via DEXA, the imprecision and inaccuracy in dogs with high percentage body fat could make the monitor inappropriate for clinical practice.
To compare clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features between dogs with chronic gastritis (CG) with and without lymphofollicular hyperplasia (LFH).
64 and 56 dogs with CG with (cases) and without (controls) LFH, respectively.
The medical record database of a referral clinic was searched to identify dogs that underwent endoscopic examination of the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract and were subsequently determined to have CG with or without LFH between October 2006 and February 2011. Signalment and clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings were compared between cases and controls. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with CG with LFH.
Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and more likely to be of a brachycephalic phenotype. The proportions of dogs with a poor body condition or diarrhea were significantly lower and the proportions of dogs with inspiratory dyspnea, exercise intolerance, or hyperemia and discoloration of the gastric mucosa were significantly higher for the case group, compared with the control group. Inspiratory dyspnea, gastric mucosal hyperemia, and gastritis severity were positively associated, whereas poor body condition was negatively associated, with CG with LFH on multivariable logistic regression.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The strong positive association between inspiratory dyspnea and CG with LFH suggested that the condition may be a consequence of an increase in negative intrathoracic pressure rather than a distinct clinical entity. Prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which inspiratory dyspnea contributes to the development of CG with LFH.
Objective—To compare large intestinal transit time (LITT) in dogs of various body sizes and determine whether fecal quality was correlated with LITT.
Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.
Procedure—LITT was calculated as the difference between total (TTT) and orocecal transit time (OCTT). Minimum and mean OCTTs were determined by use of the sulfasalazine-sulfapyridine method. Minimum TTT was estimated by use of chromium and ferric oxide as color markers, and mean TTT was calculated from the recovery from feces of ingested colored plastic beads. Fecal moisture content was determined and fecal consistency was scored during the same period.
Results—Large-breed dogs had higher fecal moisture content and more watery fecal consistency. No association between body size and OCTT was detected, but there was a positive correlation between body size and mean TTT. Mean LITT increased significantly with body size, from 9.1 ± 1.1 hours in Miniature Poodles to 39.4 ± 1.6 hours for Giant Schnauzers. Significant correlations were detected among mean LITT, mean TTT, and fecal scores, whereas no correlation was observed between fecal moisture content and TTT or LITT.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LITT was correlated with fecal consistency in dogs of various body sizes. Mean LITT can be predicted from values for mean TTT in healthy dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of dietary fat and energy density on body weight gain, body composition, and total energy expenditure (TEE) in neutered and sexually intact cats.
Animals—12 male and 12 female cats
Procedure—Male cats were castrated (castrated male [CM]) or underwent no surgical procedure (sexually intact male [IM]). Female cats underwent ovariectomy (spayed female [SF]) or laparotomy and ligation of both uterine tubes without ovary removal (sexually intact female [IF]). Cats were fed either the low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 26 weeks, with the final allocation consisting of 8 groups: IF-LF, IF-HF, SF-LF, SF-HF, IM-LF, IM-HF, CM-LF, and CM-HF. Mean food intake for each group was recorded daily, and body weight was monitored weekly throughout the study. Body composition and TEE were measured before surgery in week 0 and at the end of the study (week 26) by isotope dilution (double-labelled water).
Results—Neutered cats gained significantly more body fat and body weight (53.80 ± 5.79%) than sexually intact cats (27.11 ± 5.79%) during the study. Body weight gain of neutered cats fed the HF diet was greater than those fed the LF diet. Following correction for body composition, TEE was similar in all groups and no pattern towards increased food intake was evident.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Weight gain in neutered cats was decreased by feeding an LF, low energy-dense diet. To prevent weight gain in cats after neutering, a suitable LF diet should be fed in carefully controlled meals rather than ad libitum. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1708–1713)
Objective—To compare gastric emptying time, smallintestinal transit time (SITT), and orocecal transit time (OCTT) of radiopaque markers in dogs varying in age and body size and to determine whether fecal variables (ie, consistency and moisture content) are related to gastrointestinal tract transit times in dogs.
Animals—24 eight-week-old female puppies, including 6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.
Procedure—Gastrointestinal tract transit time experiments were performed at 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks of age. Dogs were fed 30 small radiopaque markers mixed with a meal. Abdominal radiographs were taken. The time at which 50% of the markers had left the stomach (T50) and the time at which the first marker reached the colon were calculated. Fecal moisture content and scoring on the basis of fecal consistency were recorded during the same periods.
Results—Puppies had a shorter mean T50 than adults, and mean OCTT decreased significantly only during growth of large-breed dogs. However mean fecal moisture content significantly increased with age, except in Giant Schnauzers. No effect of body size on T50 was found regardless of age, and no difference was observed between OCTT of small- and large-breed adult dogs. The effect of age on the mean SITT was not significant for any breed. However, a strong positive correlation was recorded between body size and fecal moisture content (r2 = 0.77) or fecal scores (r2 = 0.69) in adult dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age affects T50 in small- and large-breed dogs and OCTT in largebreed dogs. However, body size does not affect T50 or OCTT. A relationship does not exist between gastrointestinal tract transit time and fecal variables in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:677–682)
Objective—To compare orocecal transit time (OCTT) as assessed by use of the sulfapyridine appearance time in plasma after oral administration of sulfasalazine in dogs of varying age and body size and determine whether OCTT correlates with fecal quality.
Animals—6 Miniature Poodles (MP), 6 Standard Schnauzers (SS), 6 Giant Schnauzers (GS), and 6 Great Danes (GD).
Procedure—Determinations of OCTT were made at 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks of age. Dogs were fed sulfasalazine mixed with a meal. Blood samples were then collected for 6 hours. The OCTT was the time from ingestion of the meal to detection of sulfapyridine in plasma. Fecal moisture content and consistency were recorded during the same periods.
Results—Mean OCTT decreased during growth of GS and GD dogs. No correlation was found between OCTT and fecal variables during growth in the 4 breeds. Effect of body size was observed at 12 and 22 weeks of age, with a longer OCTT in GS and GD than in MP and SS dogs. Similar OCTTs were observed at 36 and 60 weeks of age in all breeds, although GS and GD dogs had poorer fecal quality during those periods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An effect of age on OCTT was observed only in large-breed dogs, with longer transit times in puppies (12 weeks old) than in adults (60 weeks old). Mean OCTT is not correlated with body size in adult dogs. No relationship was detected between OCTT and fecal variables in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1105–1109)
Objective—To evaluate effects of age and body size of dogs on intestinal permeability (unmediated diffusion) as measured by the ratio of urinary lactulose to L-rhamnose (L:R) and absorption (carrier-mediated transport) as measured by the ratio of urinary D-xylose to 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (X:MG) and to determine whether these variables correlated with fecal quality.
Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.
Procedure—A solution that contained lactulose and rhamnose or xylose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose was administered orally to dogs that were 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks old. Urine was collected 6 hours later, and urinary L:R and X:MG were calculated. Fecal moisture and scoring were recorded during the same periods.
Results—Age and breed did not affect intestinal absorption, and we did not detect a relationship between X:MG and fecal variables. In contrast, we detected significant effects of age and body size on intestinal permeability. Puppies (12 weeks old) and large dogs had higher intestinal permeability than adult (60 weeks old) and small dogs. The increased intestinal permeability in large dogs was associated with lower fecal quality as indicated by the significant positive correlations between L:R and fecal moisture (r, 0.61) and L:R and fecal scores (r, 0.86) in adult dogs.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—These results indicate that age and body size should be considered when assessing intestinal permeability by use of the L:R urinary excretion test in dogs. High intestinal permeability could be a possible cause of poor fecal quality in large dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1323–1328)
Objective—To evaluate the effect of a soy-based diet on general health and adrenocortical and thyroid gland function in dogs.
Animals—20 healthy privately owned adult dogs.
Procedures—In a randomized controlled clinical trial, dogs were fed a soy-based diet with high (HID; n = 10) or low (LID; 10) isoflavones content. General health of dogs, clinicopathologic variables, and serum concentrations of adrenal gland and thyroid gland hormones were assessed before treatment was initiated and up to 1 year later. Differences between groups with respect to changes in the values of variables after treatment were assessed by means of a Student t test (2 time points) and repeated-measures ANOVA (3 time points).
Results—No differences were detected between the 2 groups with respect to body condition and results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and urine analyses. Most serum concentrations of hormones did not change significantly after treatment, nor were they affected by diet. However, the mean change in serum concentration of total thyroxine was higher in the HID group (15.7 pmol/L) than that in the LID group (–1.9 pmol/L). The mean change in estradiol concentration after ACTH stimulation at 1 year after diets began was also higher in the HID group (19.0 pg/mL) than that in the LID group (–5.6 pg/mL).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Phytoestrogens may influence endocrine function in dogs. Feeding soy to dogs on a long-term basis may influence results of studies in which endocrine function is evaluated, although larger studies are needed to confirm this supposition.
Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics and clearances of creatinine and iohexol as estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs with various degrees of renal function.
Animals—50 Great Anglo-Francais Tricolor Hounds with various degrees of renal function.
Procedures—Boluses of iohexol (40 mg/kg) and creatinine (647 mg/kg) were injected IV. Blood samples were collected before administration and 5 and 10 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after administration. Plasma creatinine and iohexol concentrations were assayed via an enzymatic method and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. A noncompartmental approach was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacokinetic variables were compared via a Bland-Altman plot and an ANOVA.
Results—Compared with results for creatinine, iohexol had a significantly higher mean ± SD plasma clearance (3.4 ± 0.8 mL/min/kg vs 3.0 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg) and a significantly lower mean volume of distribution at steady state (250 ± 37 mL/kg vs 539 ± 73 mL/kg), mean residence time (80 ± 31 minutes vs 195 ± 73 minutes), and mean elimination half-life (74 ± 20 minutes vs 173 ± 53 minutes). Despite discrepancies between clearances, especially for high values, the difference was < 0.6 mL/min/kg for 34 (68%) dogs. Three dogs with a low GFR (< 2 mL/min/kg) were classified similarly by both methods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma iohexol and creatinine clearances can be used interchangeably for screening patients suspected of having chronic kidney disease (ie, low GFR), but large differences may exist for dogs with a GFR within or above the reference range.