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Abstract

Objective—To assess performance of a portable bioimpedance monitor for measurement of body composition in dogs.

Animals—24 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Percentage body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and with a portable bioimpedance monitor, and body condition score (BCS) was measured by use of a 9-integer scale.

Results—Although the precision of the bioimpedance monitor was good, this varied among dogs. Body position (standing vs sternal) had no effect on bioimpedance results. There was a significant association between results determined via DEXA and bioimpedance, but this association was weaker than between DEXA and BCS. When agreement was assessed via Bland-Altman plot, the bioimpedance monitor under- and overestimated values at high and low body fat percentages, respectively. In 9 dogs, body fat measurements were taken before and after weight loss to determine the proportional loss of tissue mass during weight management. There was a significant difference in the estimated percentage of weight lost as fat between the DEXA and bioimpedance methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although percentage body fat measured by use of a portable bioimpedance monitor correlated well with values determined via DEXA, the imprecision and inaccuracy in dogs with high percentage body fat could make the monitor inappropriate for clinical practice.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features between dogs with chronic gastritis (CG) with and without lymphofollicular hyperplasia (LFH).

ANIMALS

64 and 56 dogs with CG with (cases) and without (controls) LFH, respectively.

PROCEDURES

The medical record database of a referral clinic was searched to identify dogs that underwent endoscopic examination of the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract and were subsequently determined to have CG with or without LFH between October 2006 and February 2011. Signalment and clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings were compared between cases and controls. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with CG with LFH.

RESULTS

Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and more likely to be of a brachycephalic phenotype. The proportions of dogs with a poor body condition or diarrhea were significantly lower and the proportions of dogs with inspiratory dyspnea, exercise intolerance, or hyperemia and discoloration of the gastric mucosa were significantly higher for the case group, compared with the control group. Inspiratory dyspnea, gastric mucosal hyperemia, and gastritis severity were positively associated, whereas poor body condition was negatively associated, with CG with LFH on multivariable logistic regression.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The strong positive association between inspiratory dyspnea and CG with LFH suggested that the condition may be a consequence of an increase in negative intrathoracic pressure rather than a distinct clinical entity. Prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which inspiratory dyspnea contributes to the development of CG with LFH.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare large intestinal transit time (LITT) in dogs of various body sizes and determine whether fecal quality was correlated with LITT.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—LITT was calculated as the difference between total (TTT) and orocecal transit time (OCTT). Minimum and mean OCTTs were determined by use of the sulfasalazine-sulfapyridine method. Minimum TTT was estimated by use of chromium and ferric oxide as color markers, and mean TTT was calculated from the recovery from feces of ingested colored plastic beads. Fecal moisture content was determined and fecal consistency was scored during the same period.

Results—Large-breed dogs had higher fecal moisture content and more watery fecal consistency. No association between body size and OCTT was detected, but there was a positive correlation between body size and mean TTT. Mean LITT increased significantly with body size, from 9.1 ± 1.1 hours in Miniature Poodles to 39.4 ± 1.6 hours for Giant Schnauzers. Significant correlations were detected among mean LITT, mean TTT, and fecal scores, whereas no correlation was observed between fecal moisture content and TTT or LITT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LITT was correlated with fecal consistency in dogs of various body sizes. Mean LITT can be predicted from values for mean TTT in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare gastric emptying time, smallintestinal transit time (SITT), and orocecal transit time (OCTT) of radiopaque markers in dogs varying in age and body size and to determine whether fecal variables (ie, consistency and moisture content) are related to gastrointestinal tract transit times in dogs.

Animals—24 eight-week-old female puppies, including 6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—Gastrointestinal tract transit time experiments were performed at 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks of age. Dogs were fed 30 small radiopaque markers mixed with a meal. Abdominal radiographs were taken. The time at which 50% of the markers had left the stomach (T50) and the time at which the first marker reached the colon were calculated. Fecal moisture content and scoring on the basis of fecal consistency were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Puppies had a shorter mean T50 than adults, and mean OCTT decreased significantly only during growth of large-breed dogs. However mean fecal moisture content significantly increased with age, except in Giant Schnauzers. No effect of body size on T50 was found regardless of age, and no difference was observed between OCTT of small- and large-breed adult dogs. The effect of age on the mean SITT was not significant for any breed. However, a strong positive correlation was recorded between body size and fecal moisture content (r2 = 0.77) or fecal scores (r2 = 0.69) in adult dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age affects T50 in small- and large-breed dogs and OCTT in largebreed dogs. However, body size does not affect T50 or OCTT. A relationship does not exist between gastrointestinal tract transit time and fecal variables in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:677–682)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dietary fat and energy density on body weight gain, body composition, and total energy expenditure (TEE) in neutered and sexually intact cats.

Animals—12 male and 12 female cats

Procedure—Male cats were castrated (castrated male [CM]) or underwent no surgical procedure (sexually intact male [IM]). Female cats underwent ovariectomy (spayed female [SF]) or laparotomy and ligation of both uterine tubes without ovary removal (sexually intact female [IF]). Cats were fed either the low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 26 weeks, with the final allocation consisting of 8 groups: IF-LF, IF-HF, SF-LF, SF-HF, IM-LF, IM-HF, CM-LF, and CM-HF. Mean food intake for each group was recorded daily, and body weight was monitored weekly throughout the study. Body composition and TEE were measured before surgery in week 0 and at the end of the study (week 26) by isotope dilution (double-labelled water).

Results—Neutered cats gained significantly more body fat and body weight (53.80 ± 5.79%) than sexually intact cats (27.11 ± 5.79%) during the study. Body weight gain of neutered cats fed the HF diet was greater than those fed the LF diet. Following correction for body composition, TEE was similar in all groups and no pattern towards increased food intake was evident.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Weight gain in neutered cats was decreased by feeding an LF, low energy-dense diet. To prevent weight gain in cats after neutering, a suitable LF diet should be fed in carefully controlled meals rather than ad libitum. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1708–1713)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of age and body size of dogs on intestinal permeability (unmediated diffusion) as measured by the ratio of urinary lactulose to L-rhamnose (L:R) and absorption (carrier-mediated transport) as measured by the ratio of urinary D-xylose to 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (X:MG) and to determine whether these variables correlated with fecal quality.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.

Procedure—A solution that contained lactulose and rhamnose or xylose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose was administered orally to dogs that were 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks old. Urine was collected 6 hours later, and urinary L:R and X:MG were calculated. Fecal moisture and scoring were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Age and breed did not affect intestinal absorption, and we did not detect a relationship between X:MG and fecal variables. In contrast, we detected significant effects of age and body size on intestinal permeability. Puppies (12 weeks old) and large dogs had higher intestinal permeability than adult (60 weeks old) and small dogs. The increased intestinal permeability in large dogs was associated with lower fecal quality as indicated by the significant positive correlations between L:R and fecal moisture (r, 0.61) and L:R and fecal scores (r, 0.86) in adult dogs.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—These results indicate that age and body size should be considered when assessing intestinal permeability by use of the L:R urinary excretion test in dogs. High intestinal permeability could be a possible cause of poor fecal quality in large dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1323–1328)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare orocecal transit time (OCTT) as assessed by use of the sulfapyridine appearance time in plasma after oral administration of sulfasalazine in dogs of varying age and body size and determine whether OCTT correlates with fecal quality.

Animals—6 Miniature Poodles (MP), 6 Standard Schnauzers (SS), 6 Giant Schnauzers (GS), and 6 Great Danes (GD).

Procedure—Determinations of OCTT were made at 12, 22, 36, and 60 weeks of age. Dogs were fed sulfasalazine mixed with a meal. Blood samples were then collected for 6 hours. The OCTT was the time from ingestion of the meal to detection of sulfapyridine in plasma. Fecal moisture content and consistency were recorded during the same periods.

Results—Mean OCTT decreased during growth of GS and GD dogs. No correlation was found between OCTT and fecal variables during growth in the 4 breeds. Effect of body size was observed at 12 and 22 weeks of age, with a longer OCTT in GS and GD than in MP and SS dogs. Similar OCTTs were observed at 36 and 60 weeks of age in all breeds, although GS and GD dogs had poorer fecal quality during those periods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An effect of age on OCTT was observed only in large-breed dogs, with longer transit times in puppies (12 weeks old) than in adults (60 weeks old). Mean OCTT is not correlated with body size in adult dogs. No relationship was detected between OCTT and fecal variables in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1105–1109)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of restricted tube-feeding (25% of energy requirements) of protein, lipid, or carbohydrates on body weight loss; hematologic and clinical chemical variables; plasma lipid and amino add concentrations; nitrogen balance; and hepatic histologic features and lipid concentrations were compared with values in voluntary-fasting cats (control, con). Twelve obese cats (6.1 ± 0.1 kg, > 40% above optimal body weight) were randomly assigned to 4 matched treatment groups (n = 3)—protein (pro), lipid (lip), carbohydrate (cho), and con—and were offered a low-palatability diet for 4 weeks. Cats of the pro, lip, and cho groups were also tube-fed isocaloric amounts (88 kcal of metabolizable energy) of a casein-soybean protein mixture, com oil, or a dextrin-dextrose mixture, respectively, during the 4 weeks. All cats fasted, rather than eat the low-palatability purified diet. Cats of the pro group lost weight at a lower rate (P < 0.05) than did cats of other groups. After 4 weeks of fasting, serum alkaline phosphatase activities were higher than reference values in all cats of the con and lip groups and in 2 cats of the cho group. At that time, 1 cat of the lip group had lethargy, hepatomegaly, and hyperbilirubinemia. Total hepatic lipid and triglyceride concentrations increased in all groups during the study, but the increase was significantly (P < 0.05) less in cats of the pro group, compared with those of the con and lip groups, and those of the cho group, compared with those of the lip group. Hepatic total lipid and triglyceride concentrations correlated well with lipid score for liver biopsy specimens when lipidosis was mild or severe, but not as well in association with the intermediate lipidosis. Cats of the PRO group were in nitrogen balance after 2 weeks of fasting. All other cats remained in negative nitrogen balance during the fast, although less nitrogen was lost by cats of the cho and lip groups than by cats of the con group. Plasma aminograms indicated that methionine and arginine might become limiting for protein synthesis during fasting in cats.

Results indicate that dietary protein reduces hepatic lipid accumulation and nitrogen balance is maintained during rapid weight loss in obese cats. Ingestion of only lipids increases the risk of inducing hepatic lipidosis. Ingestion of carbohydrates reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, but is not as effective as protein in preventing all the clinical manifestations of hepatic lipidosis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of a soy-based diet on general health and adrenocortical and thyroid gland function in dogs.

Animals—20 healthy privately owned adult dogs.

Procedures—In a randomized controlled clinical trial, dogs were fed a soy-based diet with high (HID; n = 10) or low (LID; 10) isoflavones content. General health of dogs, clinicopathologic variables, and serum concentrations of adrenal gland and thyroid gland hormones were assessed before treatment was initiated and up to 1 year later. Differences between groups with respect to changes in the values of variables after treatment were assessed by means of a Student t test (2 time points) and repeated-measures ANOVA (3 time points).

Results—No differences were detected between the 2 groups with respect to body condition and results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and urine analyses. Most serum concentrations of hormones did not change significantly after treatment, nor were they affected by diet. However, the mean change in serum concentration of total thyroxine was higher in the HID group (15.7 pmol/L) than that in the LID group (–1.9 pmol/L). The mean change in estradiol concentration after ACTH stimulation at 1 year after diets began was also higher in the HID group (19.0 pg/mL) than that in the LID group (–5.6 pg/mL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Phytoestrogens may influence endocrine function in dogs. Feeding soy to dogs on a long-term basis may influence results of studies in which endocrine function is evaluated, although larger studies are needed to confirm this supposition.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of long-term voluntary fasting on hematologic variables, biochemical profiles, and liver histologic findings was assessed in 15 obese cats (> 40% overweight). Clinical signs and laboratory results consistent with hepatic lipidosis were observed in 12 of 15 cats after 5 to 7 weeks of fasting, and were associated with 30 to 35% reduction of initial body weight. Histologic examination of successive liver biopsy specimens revealed that obesity was not associated with liver parenchymal lipid accumulation, but that fasting resulted in lipidosis in all 15 cats. The long-term fast was associated with an early (after 2 to 4 weeks of fasting) and significant (P< 0.05) reduction in serum urea, glucose, and albumin concentrations, and RBC mass. Fasting for 5 to 7 weeks was associated with a significant (P< 0.05) increase in hepatic-associated enzyme activities and in total and direct serum bilirubin concentrations. Significant (P< 0.05) changes in serum alkaline phosphatase developed as early as 3 weeks before the onset of hyper-bilirubinemia. Except for development of hepatic lipidosis, cats appeared to tolerate the fast without other adverse effect. This study confirmed that longterm fasting may induce clinical hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Fasting appears to induce a syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that is indistinguishable from feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and may be an appropriate model to study the pathophysiologic features and treatment of hepatic lipidosis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research