Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Vincent A. Wavreille x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate a novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization in female cats and small dogs and compare the time required for and success rates achieved by use of the novel technique versus traditional methods (blind technique in cats and digital palpation in dogs) as performed by personnel (catheter placers [CPs]) with different levels of experience in urinary catheter placement.

ANIMALS

39 healthy sexually intact female animals (24 cats and 15 dogs weighing < 10 kg).

PROCEDURES

2 CPs were board certified in veterinary surgery, 1 of whom had experience with the novel technique, and the other did not. The third CP was a veterinary surgical intern who was unfamiliar with the novel technique. For each animal enrolled in the study, 1 CP performed catheterization with the novel technique and traditional methods. Data recorded included the time required for successful catheterization and whether a successful catheterization was achieved within a 3-minute time limit.

RESULTS

The overall success rates were 79.5% (31/39 animals) with the novel technique and 43.6% (17/39 animals) with traditional methods. Median times for successful catheter placement were 48 seconds for the novel technique and 41 seconds for traditional methods. Among CPs, success rates or times to successful catheter placement did not differ significantly.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Study results suggested that the novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization may be a more efficient option than traditional methods for gaining access to the urinary bladder in cats and small dogs, particularly when patient size limits use of instrumentation or digital palpation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine administered via the oral transmucosal (OTM) route to healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

Injectable dexmedetomidine was administered IV (5 μg/kg) or via the OTM route (20 μg/kg) in a blinded, single-observer, randomized crossover study. Dogs received dexmedetomidine and a sham treatment at each administration. Serial blood samples were collected from a catheter in a saphenous vein. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and subjective sedation score were assessed for 24 hours after administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for dexmedetomidine concentrations by use of ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS

For the OTM route, the mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3 ng/mL, which was detected 73 ± 33 minutes after administration. The mean maximum concentration for the IV dose, when extrapolated to the time of administration, was 18.6 ± 3.3 ng/mL. The mean terminal-phase half-life was 152 ± 146 minutes and 36 ± 6 minutes for OTM and IV administration, respectively. After IV administration, total clearance was 8.0 ± 1.6 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution at steady state was 371 ± 72 mL/kg. Bioavailability for OTM administration of dexmedetomidine was 11.2 ± 4.5%. Peak sedation scores did not differ significantly between routes of administration. Decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate, and peak sedation score were evident sooner after IV administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

OTM administration of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine resulted in a similar degree of sedation and prolonged duration of action, compared with results for IV administration, despite relatively low bioavailability.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine after IM administration in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult purpose-bred dogs (3 males, 3 females) with a mean ± SD body weight of 25.2 ± 1.8 kg.

PROCEDURES

Each dog received 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine, IM. Heart rate and respiratory rate were counted via cardiac auscultation and visual assessment of chest excursions. Sedation was assessed utilizing 2 sedation scoring systems. Plasma concentrations were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations versus time data after IM dexmedetomidine were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis for extravascular administration.

RESULTS

Over the first 2 hours following IM injection of dexmedetomidine, plasma concentrations fluctuated in each dog. The geometric mean (range) maximum plasma concentration was 109.2 (22.4 to 211.5) ng/mL occurring at 20.5 (5 to 75) minutes, and the mean half-life was 25.5 (11.5 to 41.5) minutes. Heart rate was significantly lower than baseline from 30 minutes to 2 hours postdexmedetomidine administration, and respiratory rate was significantly lower than baseline from 45 minutes to 1.75 hours. Dogs were significantly more sedated from 30 minutes to 1.5 hours postdexmedetomidine administration. Median time to onset of sedation was 7.5 minutes (range, 2 to 10 minutes), and median time to peak sedation was 30 minutes (range, 15 to 60 minutes).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Variations in plasma concentrations occurred in all dogs for the 2 hours postinjection of dexmedetomidine at 10 µg/kg, IM. This was likely due to alterations in absorption due to dexmedetomidine-induced local vasoconstriction. Despite variable plasma concentrations, all dogs were sedated following IM dexmedetomidine administration.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide information about complication rates and the risk factors for complications with mandibulectomy and maxillectomy procedures in dogs.

ANIMALS

459 client-owned dogs that underwent a mandibulectomy or maxillectomy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018.

PROCEDURES

Inclusion criteria included a complete medical record that contained an anesthesia record, surgical report, available histopathology results, and results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis before surgery. A minimum follow-up of 90 days after surgery was required.

RESULTS

271 complications occurred in 171 of 459 (37.3%) dogs. Eighteen complications were not given a severity description. Of the remaining 253 complications, most were considered minor (157/253 [62.1%]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only increased surgical time had a significant (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.54) association with the occurrence of ≥ 1 complication. For each additional hour of surgery, the odds of complications increased by 36%. Preoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Additionally, undergoing maxillectomy, compared with mandibulectomy, increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1). Two hundred forty-four of 271 (90.0%) complications occurred in the perioperative period (0 to 3 months after surgery).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Compared with mandibulectomy, performing maxillectomy increased the risk for incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation. Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy had a moderate risk for a complication.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association