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  • Author or Editor: Viktor Szatmári x
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A 7-year-old 4.7-kg (10.3-lb) neutered male Russian Blue cat was examined by the referring veterinarian because of lethargy and inappetence of 2 days' duration. Cardiac auscultation revealed the only abnormality identified during physical examination, which was an irregular cardiac rhythm with a frequency of approximately 300 beats/min and interrupted with periods of distinctly lower (albeit undocumented) frequency. The cat had no history of cardiac abnormalities. The cat was immediately referred to the emergency service of a veterinary teaching hospital.

At the referral evaluation, the cat was bright, alert, and responsive and had a body condition score of 5/9. No signs

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of simultaneous fluoroscopic and transthoracic echocardiographic guidance during transarterial coil placement for embolization of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in dogs.

Design—Descriptive report.

Animals—3 dogs with PDA.

Procedure—Each dog was anesthetized, and a femoral artery was exposed for vascular access. By use of an introducer, a catheter was placed in the thoracic portion of the descending aorta with fluoroscopic guidance, and subsequently, a bolus of iodinated radiographic contrast material was injected to outline the ductus. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 1 coil was positioned in the ductus, but not released. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to ensure that 1 loop of the coil was located in the pulmonary artery. When > 1 loop or no loops were detected in the pulmonary artery, the coil was retrieved and repositioned; when 1 loop of the coil was detected in the pulmonary artery, the coil was detached. After catheter removal, the femoral artery was ligated and the wound was closed.

Results—In all 3 dogs, successful embolization of the PDA was achieved. Echocardiography prevented unintentional pulmonary artery embolization in 1 dog and suboptimal coil placement in the other 2 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In addition to fluoroscopic control, transthoracic echocardiography appears to aid the appropriate positioning of a transarterial coil for treatment of PDA in dogs. Although transesophageal echocardiography would likely provide better images of the ductus, transthoracic echocardiography is a much cheaper, less specialized, and more widely available alternative.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine portal hemodynamic changes associated with surgical shunt ligation and establish ultrasonographic criteria for determining the optimal degree of shunt narrowing and predicting outcome.

Design—Case series.

Animals—17 dogs, each with a single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

Procedure—Pre- and postligation flow velocities and flow directions were determined by Doppler ultrasonography intraoperatively in the shunt and in the portal vein cranial and caudal to the shunt origin. Outcome was evaluated 1 month after surgery by measuring blood ammonia concentration and performing abdominal ultrasonography.

Results—Hepatofugal flow was detected in 9 of 17 dogs before shunt attenuation in the portal segment that was between the shunt origin and the entering point of the gastroduodenal vein. If hepatofugal flow became hepatopetal after shunt ligation, hyperammonemia resolved. Hepatofugal portal flow was caused by blood that flowed from the gastroduodenal vein toward the shunt. Shunt attenuation converted hepatofugal flow to hepatopetal in the shunt in 12 of 17 dogs. Chronic portal hypertension developed or perioperative death occurred when the portal congestion index caudal to the shunt origin increased by > 3.6 times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After hepatopetal flow in the cranial portal vein and the shunt is established, further shunt narrowing is contraindicated. Increase of the portal congestion index caudal to the shunt > 3.5 times should be avoided. Poor outcome because of severe hypoplasia of the portal branches can be expected if the flow direction remains hepatofugal after shunt occlusion cranial to the shunt origin. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:395–402)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine ultrasonographic abnormalities in dogs with hyperammonemia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—90 client-owned dogs with hyperammonemia.

Procedure—Ultrasonography of the abdominal vessels and organs was performed in a systematic way. Dogs in which the ultrasonographic diagnosis was a congenital portosystemic shunt were included only if they underwent laparotomy or necropsy. Dogs in which the abdominal vasculature appeared normal and dogs in which the ultrasonographic diagnosis was acquired portosystemic shunts and portal hypertension were included only if liver biopsy specimens were submitted for histologic examination.

Results—Ultrasonography excluded portosystemic shunting in 11 dogs. Acquired portosystemic shunts were found in 17 dogs, of which 3 had arterioportal fistulae and 14 had other hepatic abnormalities. Congenital portosystemic shunts were found in 61 dogs, of which 19 had intrahepatic shunts and 42 had extrahepatic shunts. Intrahepatic shunts originated from the left portal branch in 14 dogs and the right portal branch in 5. Extrahepatic shunts originated from the splenic vein, the right gastric vein, or both and entered the caudal vena cava or the thorax. Ultrasonography revealed splenic-caval shunts in 24 dogs, right gastric-caval shunts in 9 dogs, splenic-azygos shunts in 8 dogs, and a right gastric-azygos shunt in 1 dog.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that ultrasonography is a reliable diagnostic method to noninvasively characterize the underlying disease in dogs with hyperammonemia. A dilated left testicular or ovarian vein was a reliable indicator of acquired portosystemic shunts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:717–727)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association