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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether vaccinated dogs either remained seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination for 5 key viral antigens after extended periods since their last vaccination.

Design—Serologic survey.

Animals—322 healthy client-owned dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were ≥ 2 years old and vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus-1 (CAV-1), canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and canine parvovirus (CPV). On day 0, dogs were revaccinated with a vaccine from the same vaccine line as they had historically received. Antibody titers were measured in sera collected at day 0 (prevaccination titer) and 5 to 7 days later (postvaccination titer). Dogs were considered to have responded serologically if they had a day-0 serum neutralization titer to CDV ≥ 1:32; a serum neutralization titer to CAV-1, CAV-2, or CPIV ≥ 1:16; a hemagglutination inhibition titer to CPV ≥ 1:80; or a ≥ 4-fold increase in antibody titer after revaccination.

Results—The percentage of dogs that had titers at or greater than the threshold values or responded to revaccination with a ≥ 4-fold increase in titer was 98.1% for CDV, 98.4% for CAV-1, 99.0% for CAV-2, 100% for CPIV, and 98.1% for CPV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In most dogs, vaccination induced a response that lasted up to and beyond 48 months for all 5 antigens. Although not equivalent to challenge-of-immunity studies as a demonstration of efficacy, results suggest that revaccination with the same vaccine provides adequate protection even when given less frequently than the traditional 1-year interval. The study provides valuable information for clinicians to help determine appropriate revaccination intervals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:55–60)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether vaccinated cats either remained seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination against 3 key viral antigens after extended periods since their last vaccination.

Design—Serologic survey.

Animals—272 healthy client-owned cats.

Procedure—Cats were ≥ 2 years old and vaccinated for feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline herpesvirus (FHV). On day 0, cats were revaccinated with a vaccine from the same line of vaccines as they had historically received. Antibody titers were measured in sera collected on day 0 (prevaccination titer) and 5 to 7 days later (postvaccination titer). Cats were considered to have responded serologically if they had a day-0 hemagglutination inhibition titer to FPV ≥ 1:40, serum neutralization (SN) titer to FCV ≥ 1:32, SN titer to FHV ≥ 1:16, or ≥ 4-fold increase in antibody titer after revaccination.

Results—The percentage of cats that had titers at or above the threshold values or responded to revaccination with a ≥ 4-fold increase in titer was 96.7% for FPV, 97.8% for FCV, and 88.2% for FHV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In most cats, vaccination induced a response that lasted up to and beyond 48 months for all 3 antigens. Although not equivalent to challenge-of-immunity studies as a demonstration of efficacy, results suggest that revaccination with the vaccine used in our study provides adequate protection even when given less frequently than the traditional 1-year interval. The study provides valuable information for clinicians to determine appropriate revaccination intervals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:61–66)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution administered IV to induce diuresis on 15 dimensional variables of the kidneys, size of renal pelvis, and diameter of the cranial part of the ureters.

Animals

25 dogs without evidence of renal disease that were undergoing chemotherapy for various neoplasms.

Procedure

The kidneys, cranial aspect of the ureters, and trigone area of the urinary bladder of each dog were examined ultrasonographically before and during IV administration of saline solution (2.7 to 18.8 ml/kg of body weight/h).

Results

Ultrasonography revealed unilateral and bilateral pyelectasis during diuresis in 16 of 23 (70%) dogs but unilateral pyelectasis in only 1 dog before diuresis. Unilateral pyelectasis during diuresis was observed in 11 of 16 (69%) dogs. Pyelectasis during diuresis was categorized as slight in 15 of 21 (71%) kidneys. Degree of pyelectasis during diuresis was not identical in both kidneys of 13 of 16 (81%) dogs. Diuresis did not induce ureterectasis, and it did not cause changes in 15 dimensional variables of the kidneys.

Conclusions

In nonsedated, nonazotemic dogs, IV administration of saline solution to induce diuresis may cause slight pyelectasis without evidence of ureterectasis.

Clinical Relevance

When dilatation of the cranial part of the ureter is > 2 mm at the same time that ipsilateral pyelectasis is detected during ultrasonographic examination of the urinary tract system of a nonsedated, nonazotemic dog receiving IV administration of saline solution to induce diuresis, additional examinations are recommended to determine the possibility of early obstructive nephropathy or pyelonephritis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:405-409)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine prevalence of, and risk factors for, odontociastic resorptive lesions in cats seen in a private veterinary practice population.

Design

Population-based cross-sectional study.

Animals

145 cats more than 1 year of age that underwent anesthesia for various procedures.

Procedure

Cats were evaluated under anesthesia for odontociastic resorptive lesions. Lesions were graded, using a published classification system. Clients completed a standardized survey on signalment, indoor-outdoor status, medications, diet during the past year, number of daily feedings, treat feeding, source of water, and oral hygiene practices.

Results

48% of cats had resorptive lesions. Lesions were most commonly mandibular, and premolars were more often affected. Compared with cats without oral lesions, cats with oral lesions were more likely to be older, female, taking medications, drinking city (vs well) water, and playing less often with toys. In addition, cats without oral lesions were more likely to have owners who cleaned their teeth daily or twice a week and to be fed diets with higher magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium contents. Frequency of teeth cleaning was inversely related to the development of odontociastic resorptive lesions. Variables significantly associated with oral lesions were age and magnesium content of diet.

Clinical Implications

Older cats should be examined closely for odontociastic resorptive lesions. Clients should be advised on methods and frequency of teeth cleaning in cats to prevent lesions. Dietary nutrients may play a role in the development of odontociastic resorptive lesions in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:392-395)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine long-term results of various treatments for traumatic coxofemoral joint dislocation in dogs.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

64 dogs that underwent closed reduction and bandage stabilization, extracapsular suture stabilization, transacetabular pinning, toggle pinning, DeVita pinning, or femoral head and neck excision.

Procedure

Follow-up evaluations included owner evaluation (64 dogs), physical evaluation (23), and radiography (19). Follow-up time ranged from 8 to 156 months.

Results

Owner evaluation scores after closed reduction were significantly better than scores after DeVita pinning, extracapsular suture stabilization, and femoral head and neck excision. On physical examination, 6 of 23 dogs were lame on the side of the previous dislocation. Signs of pain and crepitation were evident during palpation of 12 and 8 of 25 joints, respectively. Thirteen of 21 joints had radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease. There was a greater progression of degenerative joint disease in previously dislocated joints than in unaffected joints. There were not any significant differences between treatments in regard to results of physical and radiographic evaluation. Time between trauma and treatment and existence of concomitant injuries did not influence follow-up results, but there was a significant association between body weight and radiographic evaluation score.

Clinical Implications

Concomitant injuries do not appear to justify a worse prognosis in dogs with traumatic coxofemoral joint dislocation, nor does a delay in treatment of > 3 days. Gait abnormalities and degenerative joint disease might develop in the long term. Proper body weight should be maintained regardless of treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210:59–64)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 23 dogs with unilateral and 3 dogs with bilateral chronic bicipital tenosynovitis were reviewed. Mean age of affected dogs was 4.6 years (SD, 2.0 years), and mean body weight was 32.6 kg (SD, 14.5 kg). Neither a breed nor a gender predilection was detected. All dogs had a history of intermittent or progressive weight-bearing lameness that became worse after exercise. Mean duration of lameness prior to medical or surgical treatment was 6.5 months (range, 0.25 to 24 months), in all dogs, signs of pain were evident during palpation of the biceps tendon within the intertubercular groove. Radiography revealed sclerosis or osteophytosis of the intertubercular groove in all 29 shoulder joints. Mild degenerative joint disease was evident rudiographicully in 17. Arthrography was performed in 12 joints, and in 11 there were irregularities of or filling defects along the biceps tendon. Arthrocentesis was performed on 17 joints; 14 synovial fluid samples had cytologic abnormalities consistent with degenerative joint disease.

Medical treatment, consisting of injection of methylprcdnisolone acetate into the biceps tendon and its synovial sheath, was attempted in 21 of the 29 affected shoulder joints. Surgery, which consisted of tenodesis of the biceps tendon, was attempted in 14 joints; S of these had not been treated medically; the remaining 6 had poor results following medical treatment.

Gross and histologic findings consistent with chrome bicipital tenosynovitis were observed in all 14 joints in which surgery was performed. Seventeen of the medically treated shoulders were available for clinical evaluation, and results were excellent or good in 7. Twelve of the surgically treated shoulders were available for clinical re-evaluation, and results were excellent or good in all 12 (mean duration of follow-up, 5.7 months; range, 2 to 13 months). Owners of all dogs were contacted by telephone. Owners reported that results were excellent or good in 1.0 of the 21 medically treated shoulder joints, and in ail 14 of the, surgically treated shoulder joints (mean duration of follow-up, 30.1 months; range, 4 to 82 months).

Complications developed in 3 of the 4 dogs in which an osteotomy of the greater tubercle had been performed (implant migration, 2 dogs; delayed union, 1 dog). A seroma developed in 1 of the 10 dogs in which tenodesis was performed by laterally transposing the biceps tendon through a hole in the greater tubercle. Complications related to medical treatment were not detected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare the clinical and clinicopathologic findings in and prognosis for cats with lymphocytic portal hepatitis (LPH) versus cats with acute or chronic cholangiohepatitis (CH).

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

25 cats with LPH; 16 cats with CH (7 acute, 9 chronic).

Procedure

Cats with LPH and CH were selected by evaluating records from liver biopsy specimens submitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Teaching Hospital during a 10-year period. Clinical and clinicopathologic data were retrieved.

Results

Cats with CH had higher segmented and band neutrophil counts, alanine aminotransferase activities, and total bilirubin concentrations than did cats with LPH. Cats with acute CH had higher segmented and band neutrophil counts and lower serum alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin concentrations than did cats with chronic CH. Twelve of 14 cats with LPH or CH had coarse or nodular texture to the liver on ultrasonography, with loss of portal vein wall clarity noticed in 4 of 8 cats with LPH. Sixteen of 23 cats with LPH and 8 of 15 cats with CH survived > 1 year. Of those cats living < 1 year, all cats with LPH and 5 of 7 cats with CH had a serious concurrent illness that may have been responsible for their deaths.

Clinical Implications

LPH and CH can be detected and tentatively differentiated through evaluation of clinical laboratory test results, but histologic evaluation of liver specimens is necessary for definitive differentiation. Survival time was good regardless of the type of inflammatory liver disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999:214:513–516)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of interpleural or IM administration of morphine and interpleural administration of bupivacaine on pulmonary function in dogs that have undergone median sternotomy.

Design

Experimental trial.

Animals

18 healthy dogs.

Procedure

Dogs underwent median sternotomy and were randomly assigned to groups of 6 dogs each. Group-A dogs were given morphine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight) IM; group-B dogs were given 0.5% bupivacaine (1.5 mg/kg) interpleurally; and group-C dogs were given morphine (1.0 mg/kg) interpleurally. Heart rate; systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures; rectal temperature; pain score; and arterial blood gas partial pressures were measured and pulmonary function testing was performed immediately after extubation (time 0) and up to 48 hours later. Serum cortisol and morphine concentrations were measured at time 0 and up to 12 hours after surgery.

Results

There was a significant decrease in pH, Pao2, mean oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and dynamic compliance; and a significant increase in Paco2. alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen, pulmonary resistance, and work of breathing for dogs in all groups after surgery. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly increased, compared with preoperative values, in all dogs. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in group-B dogs between 3 and 5 hours after surgery, compared with group-A dogs.

Conclusions

Median sternotomy was associated with significant alterations in pulmonary function. Effects of interpleural administration of bupivacaine and morphine were similar to effects of IM administration of morphine.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:375-380)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the potential clinical usefulness of duplex Doppler estimation of arcuate artery resistive index (a measure of intrarenal blood flow impedance) for diagnosis of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicosis.

Animals

30 adult, female, mixed-breed dogs, allotted to 3 groups of 10 dogs each as: toxic dosage of gentamicin, therapeutic dosage of gentamicin, and saline solution sham equivalent in volume to that of the toxic dosage of gentamicin.

Procedure

After baseline screening to establish normalcy (serum biochemical analysis, endogenous creatinine clearance determination, urinalysis, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, urine culture, gray-scale sonography, and percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy), results of arcuate artery resistive index determination were compared with serum creatinine and urine specific gravity values on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday data collection schedule for 10 days. Endogenous creatinine clearance determination, ultrasound-guided renal biopsy, and urine culture were repeated at the end of data collection in all 3 groups.

Results

Significant differences in resistive index measurements were not observed, despite clinicopathologic and renal biopsy results compatible with severe acute tubular necrosis in dogs of the toxic dosage group.

Conclusions

Duplex Doppler sonography of arcuate artery blood flow impedance, expressed as the resistive index, appears to have poor clinical usefulness as a diagnostic tool in this disorder.

Clinical Relevance

Normal arcuate artery resistive index values obtained in dogs for which aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicosis is suspected do not exclude the disorder. If abnormal arcuate artery resistive index values are obtained for such dogs, further evaluation for nephropathies other than aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxi-cosis may be considered. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1536–1544)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To test the hypothesis that breed, sex, and age of cats, and anatomic location of uroliths are risk factors for calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Sample Population

Records of 3,498 feline urolith accessions submitted between September 1982 and September 1992.

Procedure

Mineral composition of feline uroliths was quantitatively analyzed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for breed, sex, age, and urolith location as risk factors for calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolith formation. The population at risk was defined as all cats for which that type of urolith had been submitted. The control population was all cats for which uroliths had been submitted, excluding cats with the type of urolith being evaluated.

Results

Burmese, Persian, and Himalayan breeds were at higher risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths, but at reduced risk for developing magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. Compared with females, neutered male cats had a higher risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths, but a reduced risk for developing magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. The risk for calcium oxalate urolith formation increased with age. One- to 2-year-old female cats had the highest risk for magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. Uroliths removed from the kidneys were more likely to be composed of calcium oxalate than of magnesium ammonium phosphate.

Clinical Implications

Breed, sex, and age of cats, and anatomic location of uroliths should be considered when evaluating risk of calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis in urolith-forming cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 208:547–551)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association