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  • Author or Editor: Vicki L. Campbell x
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Abstract

Objective—To document pulmonary function, ventilator management, and outcome of dogs with thoracic trauma that required mechanical ventilation because of severe pulmonary contusions.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—10 dogs that required mechanical ventilation because of severe pulmonary contusions caused by blunt thoracic trauma.

Procedure—Signalment, historical data, arterial blood gas values, oxygen tension-based indices, ventilator settings, peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, tidal volume, and minute ventilation values were retrieved from medical records.

Results—All 10 dogs required positive-pressure ventilation because of dyspnea following trauma and had severely abnormal pulmonary function. Survival rate to discharge was 30%. Dogs were categorized into 2 groups; group A included 5 dogs in which pulmonary function improved during ventilation, whereas group B included 5 dogs that were euthanatized because of progressive lung dysfunction (n = 4) or cardiac arrest (1). Mean ± SD body weight of group- A dogs (30.9 ± 15.9 kg [68 ± 35 lb]) was significantly greater than that of group-B dogs (7.6 ± 1.8 kg [16.7 ± 4 lb]). Dogs with improved lung function had peak inspiratory pressure that decreased progressively, whereas lung compliance deteriorated in dogs in group B.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dyspneic dogs with severe pulmonary contusions may require and benefit from positive-pressure ventilation Prognosis is better for dogs that weigh > 25 kg (55 lb). (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1505–1509)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare axillary and rectal temperature measurements obtained with a digital thermometer for Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment.

ANIMALS 26 healthy Beagles (17 sexually intact males and 9 sexually intact females).

PROCEDURES Dogs were maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment for 56 days before rectal and axillary temperatures were measured. Axillary and rectal temperatures were obtained in triplicate for each dog by use of a single commercially available manufacturer-calibrated digital thermometer.

RESULTS Mean rectal and axillary temperatures of Beagles maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment were significantly different, with a median ± SD difference of 1.4° ± 0.15°C (range, 0.7° to 2.1°C). Mean rectal and axillary temperatures were 38.7°C (range, 37.6° to 39.5°C) and 37.2°C (range, 36.6° to 38.3°C), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study indicated that the historical reference of a 0.55°C gradient between rectal and axillary temperatures that has been clinically used for veterinary patients was inaccurate for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. Rectal and axillary temperatures can be measured in veterinary patients. Reliable interpretation of axillary temperatures may accommodate patient comfort and reduce patient anxiety when serial measurement of temperatures is necessary. Further clinical studies will be needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare cardiac index (CI), oxygen delivery index ( o 2I), oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER), oxygen consumption index ( o 2I), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) in dogs with naturally occurring sepsis with published values for healthy dogs; compare those variables in dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive; and compare CI and o 2I in dogs with sepsis with values in dogs with nonseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (nSIRS).

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—10 dogs with naturally occurring sepsis and 11 dogs with nSIRS.

Procedures—Over 24 hours, CI, o 2I, O2ER, o 2I, and SVRI were measured 4 and 5 times in dogs with sepsis and with nSIRS, respectively. The mean values of each variable in each group were compared over time and between groups; data for dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive were also compared.

Results—Mean o 2I was significantly decreased, and mean CI, O2ER, o 2I, and SVRI were not significantly different in dogs with sepsis, compared with published values for healthy dogs. Mean CI and o 2I in dogs with sepsis were significantly greater than values in dogs with nSIRS. Among dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive, values of CI, o 2I, O2ER, o 2I, and SVRI did not differ significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with values in healthy dogs, only o 2 was significantly lower in dogs with sepsis. Values of CI and o 2I were significantly higher in dogs with sepsis than in dogs with nSIRS, suggesting differing degrees of myocardial dysfunction between these groups.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether use of a closed urine collection system would decrease the incidence of nosocomial bacteriuria in hospitalized dogs, compared with use of an open urine collection system (used, sterile IV bags).

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—51 hospitalized dogs requiring indwelling urinary catheterization for ≥ 24 hours.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to an open or closed urine collection system group. A standardized protocol for catheter placement and maintenance was followed for all dogs. A baseline urine sample was collected via cystocentesis for aerobic bacterial culture, with additional urine samples obtained daily from the urine collection reservoir.

Results—27 dogs were assigned to the open urine collection system group, and 24 were assigned to the closed urine collection system group. The incidence of nosocomial bacteriuria in dogs with open urine collection systems (3/27 [11.1%]) was not significantly different from incidence in dogs with closed urine collection systems (2/24 [8.3%]). Median duration of catheterization was 2 days for dogs in both groups; the range was 1 to 7 days for dogs in the open group and 1 to 5 days for dogs in the closed group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that for dogs requiring short-term indwelling urinary catheterization, the type of urine collection system (open vs closed) was not associated with likelihood of developing nosocomial bacteriuria. Use of a strict protocol for urinary catheter placement and maintenance was likely key in the low incidence of nosocomial bacteriuria in the present study.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency and severity of postanesthetic hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration and given butorphanol or hydromorphone for analgesia.

Design—Prospective trial.

Animals—20 healthy dogs weighing > 10 kg (22 lb).

Procedure—Dogs were anesthestized with acepromazine, glycopyrrolate, thiopental, and isoflurane, and butorphanol (n = 10) or hydromorphone (10) was used for perioperative analgesia. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after extubation.

Results—In dogs that received hydromorphone, mean PaCO2 was significantly higher, compared with the preoperative value, 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, and 3 hours after extubation. Mean PaCO2 was significantly higher in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 10 and 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower, compared with preoperative values, 30 minutes and 1 and 2 hours after extubation in dogs given hydromorphone and 30 minutes after extubation in dogs given butorphanol. Mean PaO2 was significantly lower in dogs given hydromorphone rather than butorphanol 1 hour after extubation. Four dogs had PaO2 < 80 mm Hg 1 or more times after extubation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of hydromorphone to healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration may result in transient increases in PaCO2 postoperatively and that administration of hydromorphone or butorphanol may result in transient decreases in PaO2. However, increases in PaCO2 and decreases in PaO2 were mild, and mean PaCO2 and PaO2 remained within reference limits. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:330–336)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the agreement between cardiac output (CO) measured by use of arterial pressure waveform analysis (PulseCO) and lithium dilution (LiDCO) in conscious dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

Animals—14 dogs with naturally occurring SIRS.

Procedures—Pulse power analysis was performed on critically ill patients with a PulseCO monitor. All measurements were obtained with an indwelling arterial line and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Intermittent measurements of CO were obtained with the LiDCO method to validate the PulseCO measurements at initial calibration (baseline; time 0) and at 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours. The 2 methods for measuring CO were compared by use of Bland-Altman analysis. An error rate for the limits of agreement between the 2 methods of < 30% was defined as being acceptable.

Results—Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate good agreement between measurements obtained by use of the PulseCO and LiDCO methods, despite no significant change in cardiac index (CI) over time as measured with the LiDCO method. The percentage error for the overall difference in CI values between the PulseCO and LiDCO measurements was 122%, which indicated that the PulseCO method was not an acceptable means of CO measurement when compared with the LiDCO method for this patient population.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between the PulseCO and LiDCO methods for measurement of CO was not acceptable at 4- and 8-hour intervals after calibration in conscious dogs with naturally occurring SIRS.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the degree of and variability in the level of client compliance and identify determinants of client compliance with short-term administration of antimicrobial medications to dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—90 owners of dogs prescribed antimicrobials.

Procedure—Eligible clients were invited to participate when antimicrobial medications were dispensed. Data were collected during a follow-up appointment by use of a client questionnaire, residual pill count, and return of an electronic medication monitoring device. Attending veterinarians also completed a questionnaire that asked them to predict client compliance. Methods of assessing compliance were compared with nonparametric tests. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate potential determinants of compliance.

Results—Median compliance rates of 97% of prescribed container openings, 91% of days when the correct number of doses were given, and 64% of doses given on time as assessed by the electronic medication monitoring devices were significantly lower than the median compliance rates of 100% for client self-report of missing doses and pill count. Veterinarians were unable to predict client compliance. The dosage regimen significantly determined compliance. Clients giving antimicrobials once or twice daily were 9 times more likely to be 100% compliant, compared with 3 times daily dosing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of reported missed doses and pill counts was a significant predictor of compliance as measured by electronic monitoring. Electronic monitoring caps provided useful information only when they were used appropriately. Asking clients about missed doses and performing pill counts are the most practical assessments of compliance in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:567–574)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes.

ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females).

PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later.

RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research