PROCEDURES Dogs were maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment for 56 days before rectal and axillary temperatures were measured. Axillary and rectal temperatures were obtained in triplicate for each dog by use of a single commercially available manufacturer-calibrated digital thermometer.
RESULTS Mean rectal and axillary temperatures of Beagles maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment were significantly different, with a median ± SD difference of 1.4° ± 0.15°C (range, 0.7° to 2.1°C). Mean rectal and axillary temperatures were 38.7°C (range, 37.6° to 39.5°C) and 37.2°C (range, 36.6° to 38.3°C), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study indicated that the historical reference of a 0.55°C gradient between rectal and axillary temperatures that has been clinically used for veterinary patients was inaccurate for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. Rectal and axillary temperatures can be measured in veterinary patients. Reliable interpretation of axillary temperatures may accommodate patient comfort and reduce patient anxiety when serial measurement of temperatures is necessary. Further clinical studies will be needed.
Objective—To document pulmonary function, ventilator
management, and outcome of dogs with thoracic
trauma that required mechanical ventilation because
of severe pulmonary contusions.
Animals—10 dogs that required mechanical ventilation
because of severe pulmonary contusions caused
by blunt thoracic trauma.
Procedure—Signalment, historical data, arterial blood
gas values, oxygen tension-based indices, ventilator
settings, peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory
pressure, tidal volume, and minute ventilation
values were retrieved from medical records.
Results—All 10 dogs required positive-pressure
ventilation because of dyspnea following trauma and
had severely abnormal pulmonary function. Survival
rate to discharge was 30%. Dogs were categorized
into 2 groups; group A included 5 dogs in which pulmonary
function improved during ventilation, whereas
group B included 5 dogs that were euthanatized
because of progressive lung dysfunction (n = 4) or
cardiac arrest (1). Mean ± SD body weight of group-
A dogs (30.9 ± 15.9 kg [68 ± 35 lb]) was significantly
greater than that of group-B dogs (7.6 ± 1.8 kg
[16.7 ± 4 lb]). Dogs with improved lung function had
peak inspiratory pressure that decreased progressively,
whereas lung compliance deteriorated in
dogs in group B.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dyspneic
dogs with severe pulmonary contusions may require
and benefit from positive-pressure ventilation
Prognosis is better for dogs that weigh > 25 kg (55 lb).
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1505–1509)
Objective—To compare cardiac index (CI), oxygen delivery index (
o2I), oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER), oxygen consumption index (
o2I), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) in dogs with naturally occurring sepsis with published values for healthy dogs; compare those variables in dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive; and compare CI and
o2I in dogs with sepsis with values in dogs with nonseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (nSIRS).
Animals—10 dogs with naturally occurring sepsis and 11 dogs with nSIRS.
Procedures—Over 24 hours, CI,
o2I, and SVRI were measured 4 and 5 times in dogs with sepsis and with nSIRS, respectively. The mean values of each variable in each group were compared over time and between groups; data for dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive were also compared.
o2I was significantly decreased, and mean CI, O2ER,
o2I, and SVRI were not significantly different in dogs with sepsis, compared with published values for healthy dogs. Mean CI and
o2I in dogs with sepsis were significantly greater than values in dogs with nSIRS. Among dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive, values of CI,
o2I, and SVRI did not differ significantly.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with values in healthy dogs, only
o2 was significantly lower in dogs with sepsis. Values of CI and
o2I were significantly higher in dogs with sepsis than in dogs with nSIRS, suggesting differing degrees of myocardial dysfunction between these groups.
Objective—To assess the agreement between cardiac output (CO) measured by use of arterial pressure waveform analysis (PulseCO) and lithium dilution (LiDCO) in conscious dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
Animals—14 dogs with naturally occurring SIRS.
Procedures—Pulse power analysis was performed on critically ill patients with a PulseCO monitor. All measurements were obtained with an indwelling arterial line and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Intermittent measurements of CO were obtained with the LiDCO method to validate the PulseCO measurements at initial calibration (baseline; time 0) and at 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours. The 2 methods for measuring CO were compared by use of Bland-Altman analysis. An error rate for the limits of agreement between the 2 methods of < 30% was defined as being acceptable.
Results—Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate good agreement between measurements obtained by use of the PulseCO and LiDCO methods, despite no significant change in cardiac index (CI) over time as measured with the LiDCO method. The percentage error for the overall difference in CI values between the PulseCO and LiDCO measurements was 122%, which indicated that the PulseCO method was not an acceptable means of CO measurement when compared with the LiDCO method for this patient population.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between the PulseCO and LiDCO methods for measurement of CO was not acceptable at 4- and 8-hour intervals after calibration in conscious dogs with naturally occurring SIRS.
Objective—To determine whether use of a closed urine collection system would decrease the incidence of nosocomial bacteriuria in hospitalized dogs, compared with use of an open urine collection system (used, sterile IV bags).
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to an open or closed urine collection system group. A standardized protocol for catheter placement and maintenance was followed for all dogs. A baseline urine sample was collected via cystocentesis for aerobic bacterial culture, with additional urine samples obtained daily from the urine collection reservoir.
Results—27 dogs were assigned to the open urine collection system group, and 24 were assigned to the closed urine collection system group. The incidence of nosocomial bacteriuria in dogs with open urine collection systems (3/27 [11.1%]) was not significantly different from incidence in dogs with closed urine collection systems (2/24 [8.3%]). Median duration of catheterization was 2 days for dogs in both groups; the range was 1 to 7 days for dogs in the open group and 1 to 5 days for dogs in the closed group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that for dogs requiring short-term indwelling urinary catheterization, the type of urine collection system (open vs closed) was not associated with likelihood of developing nosocomial bacteriuria. Use of a strict protocol for urinary catheter placement and maintenance was likely key in the low incidence of nosocomial bacteriuria in the present study.
Objective—To determine frequency and severity of
postanesthetic hypoxemia and hypercarbia in healthy
dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration
and given butorphanol or hydromorphone for
Animals—20 healthy dogs weighing > 10 kg (22 lb).
Procedure—Dogs were anesthestized with acepromazine,
glycopyrrolate, thiopental, and isoflurane, and
butorphanol (n = 10) or hydromorphone (10) was used
for perioperative analgesia. Arterial blood gas analyses
were performed 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3,
and 4 hours after extubation.
Results—In dogs that received hydromorphone,
mean PaCO2 was significantly higher, compared with
the preoperative value, 10 and 30 minutes and 1, 2,
and 3 hours after extubation. Mean PaCO2 was significantly
higher in dogs given hydromorphone rather
than butorphanol 10 and 30 minutes and 1 and 2
hours after extubation. Mean PaO2 was significantly
lower, compared with preoperative values, 30 minutes
and 1 and 2 hours after extubation in dogs given
hydromorphone and 30 minutes after extubation in
dogs given butorphanol. Mean PaO2 was significantly
lower in dogs given hydromorphone rather than
butorphanol 1 hour after extubation. Four dogs had
PaO2 < 80 mm Hg 1 or more times after extubation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that administration of hydromorphone to healthy
dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration
may result in transient increases in PaCO2 postoperatively
and that administration of hydromorphone
or butorphanol may result in transient decreases in
PaO2. However, increases in PaCO2 and decreases in
PaO2 were mild, and mean PaCO2 and PaO2 remained
within reference limits. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:330–336)
Objective—To describe the degree of and variability
in the level of client compliance and identify determinants
of client compliance with short-term administration
of antimicrobial medications to dogs.
Sample Population—90 owners of dogs prescribed
Procedure—Eligible clients were invited to participate
when antimicrobial medications were dispensed. Data
were collected during a follow-up appointment by use of
a client questionnaire, residual pill count, and return of an
electronic medication monitoring device. Attending veterinarians
also completed a questionnaire that asked
them to predict client compliance. Methods of assessing
compliance were compared with nonparametric
tests. Generalized estimating equations were used to
investigate potential determinants of compliance.
Results—Median compliance rates of 97% of prescribed
container openings, 91% of days when the
correct number of doses were given, and 64% of
doses given on time as assessed by the electronic
medication monitoring devices were significantly
lower than the median compliance rates of 100% for
client self-report of missing doses and pill count.
Veterinarians were unable to predict client compliance.
The dosage regimen significantly determined
compliance. Clients giving antimicrobials once or
twice daily were 9 times more likely to be 100% compliant,
compared with 3 times daily dosing.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination
of reported missed doses and pill counts was a
significant predictor of compliance as measured by
electronic monitoring. Electronic monitoring caps provided
useful information only when they were used
appropriately. Asking clients about missed doses and
performing pill counts are the most practical assessments
of compliance in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes.
PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later.
RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.