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Abstract

Objective—To assess associations of severity of neurologic signs (neurologic score), involvement of an intumescence, and findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with interval to recovery and outcome in dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—42 dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

Procedures—Medical records and magnetic resonance (MR) images of dogs evaluated from 2000 through 2007 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were acute onset of nonprogressive myelopathy following trauma or strenuous exercise, MRI of the spine performed within 7 days after onset, MRI findings consistent with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions, and complete medical records and follow-up.

Results—Clinical neuroanatomic localization of lesions was to the C1-C5 (n = 6), C6-T2 (6), T3-L3 (28), and L4-S3 (2) spinal cord segments. Median neurologic score was 3.5. Median duration of follow-up was 804 days (range, 3 to 2,134 days) after onset of neurologic signs. Outcome was successful in 28 (67%) dogs and unsuccessful in 14 (33%) dogs. Severity of neurologic signs, extent of the intramedullary hyperintensity on sagittal and transverse T2-weighted MR images, and detection of intramedullary hypointensity on GRE images were all associated with outcome on univariate analysis. Results of multivariate analysis suggested that maximal cross-sectional area of the intramedullary hyperintensity on transverse T2-weighted MR images was the best predictor of outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance—Clinical and MRI findings can help predict outcome in dogs with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether clinical signs or magnetic resonance imaging findings were associated with outcome in dogs with presumptive ischemic myelopathy.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—50 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records and magnetic resonance images were reviewed. A neurologic score from 1 (normal) to 5 (most severe degree of dysfunction) was assigned on the basis of neurologic signs at the time of initial examination. Follow-up information was obtained from the medical records and by means of a telephone questionnaire completed by owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Median neurologic score at the time of initial examination was 3 (range, 2 to 5). Median follow-up time was 584 days (range, 4 to 2,090 days). Neurologic score at the time of initial examination and extent of the lesion seen on magnetic resonance images (quantified as the lesion length-to-vertebral length ratio and as the percentage cross-sectional area of the lesion) were significantly associated with outcome. Sensitivity of using a lesion length-to-vertebral length ratio > 2.0 or a percentage cross-sectional area of the lesion ≥ 67% to predict an unsuccessful outcome was 100%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that severity of neurologic signs at the time of initial examination and extent of the lesions seen on magnetic resonance images were associated with outcome in dogs with ischemic myelopathy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare blood glucose (BG) concentrations measured with a portable blood glucose meter in blood samples obtained with a marginal ear vein (MEV) nick technique, from a peripheral venous catheter, and by direct venipuncture in healthy cats and cats with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy cats and 11 cats with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—On day 1, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and from a peripheral venous catheter. On day 2, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and by direct venipuncture of the medial saphenous vein.

Results—For all cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained from the peripheral venous catheter. For healthy cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture. For cats with diabetes mellitus, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture; however, for the range of concentrations examined, this difference was not clinically important.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that for the range of concentrations examined, the MEV nick technique is a reasonable alternative to venous blood collection for serial measurement of BG concentrations in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:389–392)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the degree of and variability in the level of client compliance and identify determinants of client compliance with short-term administration of antimicrobial medications to dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—90 owners of dogs prescribed antimicrobials.

Procedure—Eligible clients were invited to participate when antimicrobial medications were dispensed. Data were collected during a follow-up appointment by use of a client questionnaire, residual pill count, and return of an electronic medication monitoring device. Attending veterinarians also completed a questionnaire that asked them to predict client compliance. Methods of assessing compliance were compared with nonparametric tests. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate potential determinants of compliance.

Results—Median compliance rates of 97% of prescribed container openings, 91% of days when the correct number of doses were given, and 64% of doses given on time as assessed by the electronic medication monitoring devices were significantly lower than the median compliance rates of 100% for client self-report of missing doses and pill count. Veterinarians were unable to predict client compliance. The dosage regimen significantly determined compliance. Clients giving antimicrobials once or twice daily were 9 times more likely to be 100% compliant, compared with 3 times daily dosing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of reported missed doses and pill counts was a significant predictor of compliance as measured by electronic monitoring. Electronic monitoring caps provided useful information only when they were used appropriately. Asking clients about missed doses and performing pill counts are the most practical assessments of compliance in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:567–574)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes of dogs treated surgically for oral, nontonsillar, squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and fibrosarcomas (FSAs) with outcomes of dogs treated with a combination of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy; to explore whether postoperative, hypofractionated radiotherapy improved outcomes of dogs with incomplete excisions; and to identify prognostic factors associated with outcome.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 87 client-owned dogs that had undergone maxillectomy or mandibulectomy for treatment of oral SCC or FSA between 2000 and 2009.

PROCEDURES Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses to evaluate potential prognostic factors associated with patient outcome.

RESULTS Median survival time (MST) for all 87 dogs was 2,049 days, but was not reached for dogs with SCC, and was only 557 days for dogs with FSA; tumor type was a significant predictor of survival time. Dogs undergoing postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete excision of oral SCCs had a significantly longer MST (2,051 days) than did dogs with incompletely excised tumors and no radiotherapy (MST, 181 days). Postoperative radiotherapy of dogs with incompletely excised FSAs did not appear to offer protective value (MST, 299 days with radiotherapy and 694 days without radiotherapy).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Wide-margin surgical excision should be considered the gold-standard treatment for dogs with oral SCC or FSA. For dogs with oral SCCs without clean surgical margins, survival times may be improved by providing postoperative, hypofractionated radiotherapy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association