Objective—To compare detection rates of feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) DNA in skin biopsy specimens from cats with herpetic dermatitis, cats with nonherpetic dermatitis, and cats without dermatitis.
Animals—5 cats (9 biopsy specimens) with herpetic ulcerative dermatitis, 14 cats (17 biopsy specimens) with nonherpetic ulcerative dermatitis, and 8 cats (21 biopsy specimens) without clinically apparent skin lesions.
Procedures—A single-phase PCR assay was used to detect FHV-1 DNA in biopsy specimens. Assay results were compared with results of histologic examination.
Results—FHV-1 DNA was detected in all 9 biopsy specimens from the 5 cats with herpetic dermatitis and in 1 of 17 biopsy specimens from the 14 cats with nonherpetic dermatitis, but was not detected in any of the 21 biopsy specimens from the 8 cats without dermatitis. When results of histologic examination were used as the gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay were 100% and 95%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirmed that FHV-1 DNA can be detected in the skin of cats with herpetic dermatitis and suggest that the virus may play a causative role in the disease. In addition, the PCR assay may be useful in confirming a diagnosis of herpetic dermatitis.
Objective—To determine whether CT provides unique information about the treatment or prognosis for horses with ethmoid hematoma (EH).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—16 horses with EH.
Procedures—Horses with a diagnosis of EH that had undergone a diagnostic CT study were included. Clinical features, treatment, outcome, radiographic and CT images, and histologic specimens were reviewed.
Results—CT provided new diagnostic information that affected treatment in 10 of 16 horses. Bilateral disease occurred in 8 of 16 horses and was undetected in 5 horses prior to CT. Paranasal sinus involvement occurred in all horses, but was incompletely defined prior to CT in 7 of 16 horses. The sphenopalatine sinus was affected in 6 of 16 horses as detected on CT; 4 of 6 of these were bilaterally affected. Medical and surgical treatments were performed. Six of 10 horses had a successful outcome, with recurrence in 4 of 10. Five of 6 patients in which treatment addressed all lesion sites identified by CT had a successful outcome. Bilateral disease did not confer a poor prognosis when all affected sites were treated. Sphenopalatine sinus involvement may have been associated with recurrence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT provided anatomic information that may facilitate effective treatment of horses with EH, particularly in patients with bilateral disease and paranasal sinus involvement. Computed tomography is recommended for patients in which the lesion cannot be viewed endoscopically, when sinus involvement or multifocal disease are suspected, or when the lesion has been unresponsive to treatment.
Case Description—A 10-year-old Lipizzaner stallion was evaluated over the course of 1.5 years because of intermittent, recurrent colic.
Clinical Findings—The horse was initially treated medically for gastric ulcers; dietary changes were made, and a deworming protocol was instituted, without resolution of colic episodes. Subsequently, the horse underwent exploratory celiotomy and a large colon volvulus was identified with diffuse colonic wall thickening. A pelvic flexure biopsy sample was submitted for histologic examination, which revealed lymphocytic (CD3-positive T cells) myenteric ganglionitis (MG). The horse developed a cecal impaction after surgery, which did not resolve, despite aggressive medical management; subsequently a complete cecal bypass was performed. Cecal and colonic wall biopsy samples were evaluated histologically and confirmed the diagnosis of MG. After surgery, the horse developed a large colon impaction, which initially responded to aggressive medical treatment, and the horse was discharged.
Treatment and Outcome—Despite rigorous feed restrictions and prokinetic and corticosteroid treatment, the horse continued to have signs of colic and was euthanized 3 weeks after discharge from the hospital because of a recurrent large colon impaction. Intestinal biopsy samples obtained at the time of death revealed chronic changes in intramural ganglia consistent with generalized MG.
Clinical Relevance—MG is a rare disease in horses, causing gastrointestinal motility dysfunction and signs of colic, which is challenging to diagnose and treat successfully. Further studies are needed to identify the etiology of this disease and to explore treatment options.
To describe the etiologies, clinicopathologic findings, diagnostic modalities employed, treatments, and outcome associated with cases of septic bicipital bursitis.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES
Medical records of horses diagnosed with septic bicipital bursitis between 2000 and 2021 were reviewed. Horses were included if synoviocentesis of the bicipital bursa revealed a total nucleated cell count of ≥ 20,000 cells/µL with a neutrophil proportion of ≥ 80%, a total protein concentration of ≥ 4.0 g/dL, and/or the presence of bacteria on cytology, or positive culture of the synovial fluid. Information retrieved from medical records included signalment, history, clinicopathologic variables, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment, and outcome.
Trauma was the most common inciting cause (n = 6). Synoviocentesis using ultrasonographic guidance was performed in all cases and showed alterations consistent with septic synovitis. Radiography identified pathology in 5 horses, whereas ultrasonography identified pathology in all horses. Treatment consisted of bursoscopy (n = 6) of the bicipital bursa of which 1 was performed under standing sedation, through-and-through needle lavage (3), bursotomy (2), or medical management alone (2). Five (55.6%) horses survived to discharge. Long-term follow-up was available for 3 horses and all were serviceably sound, with 2 in training as pleasure horses and 1 case continuing retirement.
Ultrasonography was the most informative imaging modality and paramount in obtaining synovial fluid samples for definitive diagnosis of septic bicipital bursitis. Bursoscopy performed under standing sedation is a feasible treatment option. Horses treated for bicipital septic bursitis have a fair prognosis for survival and may return to some level of athletic performance.
Objective—To describe clinical manifestations of
cutaneous and ocular habronemiasis in horses and
evaluate outcome of treatment.
Procedure—The diagnosis was made on the basis of
history, clinical signs, and identification of calcified
concretions (sulfur granules) in lesions. Histologic
examination of biopsy specimens was used to confirm
the diagnosis. Case horses were compared with
a control population of 12,720 horses examined during
the same period.
Results—Arabians, gray horses, and horses with
diluted coat colors were overrepresented;
Thoroughbreds were underrepresented. Lesions
were identified most often during the summer and
early fall. The medial canthus of the eye, male genitalia,
third eyelid, and distal portions of the extremities
were the most commonly affected locations.
Twenty-five lesions were biopsied, and results of histologic
examination were consistent with a diagnosis
of habronemiasis. However, nematode larvae were
seen in only 11 (44%) biopsy specimens. Treatment
consisted of surgical removal (7 horses) or medical
treatment (56) consisting of debulking granulation tissue
and topical, intralesional, or systemic treatment
with corticosteroids. All horses were treated with
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that cutaneous and ocular habronemiasis should
be considered when examining a horse during the
summer months with a proliferative, moist, granulomatous
lesion. Treatment should be aimed at
decreasing the size of the lesion, reducing inflammation,
and preventing recurrence. In general, the prognosis
was good, and healing occurred within a few
weeks. Fly control and regular deworming with ivermectin
are recommended to reduce the incidence of
habronemiasis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222: