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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the sleep patterns, working hours, and perceptions of fatigue among veterinary house officers and to identify potential areas for targeted intervention to improve well-being.

SAMPLE

303 house officers.

PROCEDURES

A 62-item questionnaire was generated by use of an online platform and sent to veterinary house officers at participating institutions via email. Responses were analyzed for trends and associations between variables of interest.

RESULTS

The mean age of respondents was 30 ± 3.7 years. Participants included 239 residents and 64 interns. House officers slept significantly less during times when they had clinical responsibilities compared to off-clinic time (6.0 hours vs 7.5 hours, respectively; P < 0.01). The majority of house officers reported working 11 to 13 hours on a typical weekday (58% [174/302]), and 32% reported clinical responsibilities 7 d/wk. Working hours were negatively related to sleep quantity (Pearson correlation coefficient, −0.54; P < 0.01), and perceived sleep quality was worse when on call (P < 0.01). The majority of house officers felt that fatigue negatively interfered with their technical skills, clinical judgment, and ability to empathize to some extent in the previous 4 weeks.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Most house officers fail to obtain sufficient sleep for optimal cognitive function and physical and mental health. Working hours and on call may be important factors contributing to the sleep patterns of veterinary house officers, and training program structure should be critically evaluated to promote protected time for sleep.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 4-month-old 1.6-kg (3.5-lb) sexually intact female domestic shorthair kitten was referred to the North Carolina State University Small Animal Emergency Service because of progressive respiratory distress. One week earlier, the referring veterinarian had sedated the kitten with IM administration of dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and butorphanol (doses unknown) for radiographic examination because of a 1.5-month history of nasal discharge from the left nostril combined with increased respiratory rate and effort that had not responded to medical management. While sedated, the kitten became cyanotic. Intubation attempts failed because of an undefined oropharyngeal obstruction; thus, supplemental O2 was provided by

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the intestinal incisional dehiscence rate following enterotomy for foreign body removal in dogs.

ANIMALS

247 client-owned dogs with intestinal foreign bodies treated with enterotomy between November 2001 and September 2017.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data were collected regarding signalment, history, surgery, clinicopathologic findings, hospitalization, intestinal incisional dehiscence, and survival to hospital discharge. Dogs were grouped according to whether intestinal incisional dehiscence occurred (dehiscence group) or did not occur (nondehiscence group) following enterotomy, and the rate of dehiscence for the total number of enterotomies during the study period was calculated. Univariable analysis was performed to identify variables associated with intestinal incisional dehiscence.

RESULTS

8 of the 247 (3.2%) dogs had preoperative septic peritonitis, and all 8 dogs survived to hospital discharge. Incisional dehiscence occurred following 5 of the 247 (2.0%) enterotomies, and only 2 dogs in the dehiscence group did not survive to hospital discharge. Duration of hospitalization was longer for dogs in the dehiscence group than for dogs in the nondehiscence group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that enterotomy for intestinal foreign body removal had a lower rate of dehiscence in dogs during the study period, compared with rates previously reported; however, the low rate should not be used as a reason to perform an enterotomy rather than an enterectomy when needed. Surgeons should thoroughly evaluate the bowel and perform an enterotomy only when indicated.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of bevacizumab, a human monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, on the angiogenesis and growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in mice.

Animals—27 athymic nude mice.

Procedures—To each mouse, highly metastasizing parent osteosarcoma cells of canine origin were injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle. Each mouse was then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups: high-dose bevacizumab (4 mg/kg, IP), low-dose bevacizumab (2 mg/kg, IP), or control (no treatment). Tumor growth (the number of days required for the tumor to grow from 8 to 13 mm), vasculature, histomorphology, necrosis, and pulmonary metastasis were evaluated.

Results—Mice in the high-dose bevacizumab group had significantly delayed tumor growth (mean ± SD, 13.4 ± 3.8 days; range, 9 to 21 days), compared with that for mice in the low-dose bevacizumab group (mean ± SD, 9.4 ± 1.5 days; range, 7 to 11 days) or control group (mean ± SD, 7. 2 ± 1.5 days; range, 4 to 9 days). Mice in the low-dose bevacizumab group also had significantly delayed tumor growth, compared with that for mice in the control group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that bevacizumab inhibited growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in mice, which suggested that vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be clinically useful for the treatment of osteosarcoma in dogs.

Impact for Human Medicine—Canine osteosarcoma is used as a research model for human osteosarcoma; therefore, bevacizumab may be clinically beneficial for the treatment of osteosarcoma in humans.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

OBJECTIVE

To describe surgical management and associated outcomes for dogs with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

ANIMALS

110 client-owned dogs with primary spontaneous pneumothorax that underwent surgical management.

PROCEDURES

Medical records at 7 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, history, clinical signs, radiographic and CT findings, surgical methods, intraoperative and postoperative complications, outcomes, and histopathologic findings. Follow-up information was obtained by contacting the referring veterinarian or owner.

RESULTS

110 dogs were included, with a median follow-up time of 508 days (range, 3 to 2,377 days). Ninety-nine (90%) dogs underwent median sternotomy, 9 (8%) underwent intercostal thoracotomy, and 2 (2%) underwent thoracoscopy as the sole intervention. Bullous lesions were most commonly found in the left cranial lung lobe (51/156 [33%] lesions) and right cranial lung lobe (37/156 [24%] lesions). Of the 100 dogs followed up for > 30 days, 13 (13%) had a recurrence of pneumothorax, with median time between surgery and recurrence of 9 days. Recurrence was significantly more likely to occur ≤ 30 days after surgery, compared with > 30 days after surgery. Recurrence > 30 days after surgery was rare (3 [3%]). No risk factors for recurrence were identified.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Lung lobectomy via median sternotomy resulted in resolution of pneumothorax in most dogs with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Recurrence of pneumothorax was most common in the immediate postoperative period, which may have reflected failure to identify lesions during the initial thoracic exploration, rather than development of additional bullae.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate long-term outcomes and identify factors associated with death or the need for revision surgery in dogs with permanent tracheostomies (PTs).

DESIGN

Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS

69 client-owned dogs that received a PT between January 2002 and June 2016 at 1 of 4 veterinary teaching hospitals.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, radiographic and laryngeal examination findings, presence of esophageal abnormalities, date and reason for receiving a PT, postoperative complications, cause of death, and survival time. Dogs surviving < 2 weeks after receiving a PT were excluded.

RESULTS

Major complications occurred in 42 of 69 (61%) dogs, with aspiration pneumonia (13 [19%]), skinfold occlusion (13 [19%]), and stoma stenosis (12 [17%]) being most common. Revision surgery was performed in 24 of 69 (35%) dogs, most commonly because of stoma stenosis or skinfold occlusion (9/24 [38%] each). Brachycephalic dogs were more likely (OR, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 10.2) to require revision surgery than were nonbrachycephalic dogs. The overall median survival time was 1,825 days, and dogs that received corticosteroids before receiving a PT, had tracheal collapse, or were older had shorter survival times.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of the present study indicated that creation of a PT was a viable treatment option for obstructive upper airway diseases in dogs and that long-term survival after receiving a PT was possible; however, a PT may not reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide updated information on the distribution of histopathologic types of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs and evaluate the effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.

ANIMALS

340 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for removal of a primary pulmonary mass were reviewed, and histopathologic type of lesions was determined. The canine lung carcinoma stage classification system was used to determine clinical stage for dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.

RESULTS

Pulmonary carcinoma was the most frequently encountered tumor type (296/340 [87.1%]), followed by sarcoma (26 [7.6%]), adenoma (11 [3.2%]), and pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (5 [1.5%]); there was also 1 plasmacytoma and 1 carcinosarcoma. Twenty (5.9%) sarcomas were classified as primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma. There was a significant difference in median survival time between dogs with pulmonary carcinomas (399 days), dogs with histiocytic sarcomas (300 days), and dogs with neuroendocrine tumors (498 days). When dogs with pulmonary carcinomas were grouped on the basis of clinical stage, there were no significant differences in median survival time between dogs that did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that pulmonary carcinoma is the most common cause of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs; however, nonepithelial tumors can occur. Survival times were significantly different between dogs with pulmonary carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and neuroendocrine tumor, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the relative incidence of these various histologic diagnoses. The therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma remains unclear and warrants further investigation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes of dogs with parathyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated by surgical excision and to describe the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia, degree of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, duration of calcium supplementation, and survival time

ANIMALS

100 client-owned dogs with PTC admitted to academic, referral veterinary institutions.

PROCEDURES

In a retrospective multi-institutional study, medical records of dogs undergoing surgical excision of PTC between 2010 to 2019 were reviewed. Signalment, relevant medical history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic testing, imaging, surgical findings, intraoperative complications, histologic examination, and survival time were recorded.

RESULTS

100 dogs with PTC were included, and 96 dogs had clinical or incidental hypercalcemia. Common clinical signs included polyuria (44%), polydipsia (43%), hind limb paresis (22%), lethargy (21%), and hyporexia (20%). Cervical ultrasonography detected a parathyroid nodule in 91 of 91 dogs, with a single nodule in 70.3% (64/91), 2 nodules in 25.3% (23/91), and ≥ 3 nodules in 4 (4/91)% of dogs. Hypercalcemia resolved in 89 of 96 dogs within 7 days after surgery. Thirty-four percent of dogs developed hypocalcemia, on the basis of individual analyzer ranges, within 1 week after surgery. One dog had metastatic PTC to the prescapular lymph node, and 3 dogs were euthanized for refractory postoperative hypocalcemia. Estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 84%, 65%, and 51% respectively, with a median survival time of 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Excision of PTC results in resolution of hypercalcemia and excellent long-term tumor control. Surgical excision of PTC is recommended because of resolution of hypercalcemia and a good long-term prognosis. Future prospective studies and long-term follow-up are needed to further assess primary tumor recurrence, metastasis, and incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe veterinary house officers’ perceptions of dimensions of well-being during postgraduate training and to identify potential areas for targeted intervention.

SAMPLE

303 house officers.

PROCEDURES

A 62-item questionnaire was generated by use of an online platform and sent to house officers at participating institutions in October 2020. Responses were analyzed for trends and associations between selected variables.

RESULTS

239 residents, 45 rotating interns, and 19 specialty interns responded to the survey. The majority of house officers felt that their training program negatively interfered with their exercise habits, diet, and social engagement. House officers reported engaging in exercise significantly less during times of clinical responsibility, averaging 1.6 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.8) on clinical duty and 2.4 exercise sessions/wk (SD ± 0.9) when not on clinical duty (P < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of respondents reported experiencing some degree of anxiety regarding their physical health, and 95% of house officers reported feeling some degree of anxiety regarding their current financial situation. Overall, 47% reported that their work-life balance was unsustainable for > 1 year; there was no association between specialty and sustainability of work-life balance. Most house officers were satisfied with their current training program, level of clinical responsibility, and mentorship.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Veterinary house officers demonstrated a poor balance between the demands of postgraduate training and maintenance of personal health. Thoughtful interventions are needed to support the well-being of veterinary house officers.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the outcome in dogs diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) at ≥ 5 years of age treated with medical management only (M) or with surgical attenuation (S). The hypothesis was that dogs undergoing surgical attenuation would have a longer survival time than dogs undergoing medical management only.

ANIMALS

351 dogs definitively diagnosed with EHPSS at ≥ 5 years of age.

PROCEDURES

Medical records from 2009 to 2019 at 16 veterinary teaching hospitals were evaluated. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs at diagnosis, clinicopathologic data, surgical and medical treatments, shunt morphology, clinical signs and medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis, and survival time.

RESULTS

351 dogs (M, 119 [33.9%]; S, 232 [66.1%]) were included in the study. Survival time was longer with surgery than medical management (hazard ratio, 4.2; M, 3.4 years; S, 10.9 years). Continued clinical signs at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common with medical management (M, 40% [33/88]; S, 14% [21/155]). Continued medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common in the medical management group (M, 78% [69/88]; S, 34% [53/155]). Perioperative mortality rate was 7.3%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs diagnosed at ≥ 5 years of age with EHPSS have significantly better survival times and fewer clinical signs with surgical attenuation, compared with medical management. Older dogs have similar surgical mortality rates to dogs of all ages after surgical EHPSS attenuation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association