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  • Author or Editor: Valerie F. Samii x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of bronchiectasis in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—12 cats with histologic evidence of bronchiectasis.

Procedure—Information on signalment, body weight, clinical signs of respiratory disease, concurrent diseases, method by which lung tissue specimens were obtained (surgical biopsy or necropsy), and histopathologic findings was obtained by reviewing medical records from January 1987 to June 1999 for cats with confirmation of bronchiectasis by histologic examination. Available thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist.

Results—Bronchiectasis was most commonly identified in older male cats. Clinical signs referable to the lower portion of the respiratory tract were detected in only 5 cats but, when evident, were usually chronic (duration > 1 year). Radiographic pattern of bronchiectasis was cylindrical in 4 cats, and in 1 of these cats, a saccular pattern was also identified. For most cats, bronchiectasis was detected in a single lung lobe. Radiographic evidence of bronchiectasis was not detected in 2 cats. Concurrent respiratory diseases included chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis, neoplasia, bronchopneumonia, endogenous lipid pneumonia, and emphysema.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Bronchiectasis appears to be an uncommon respiratory tract disorder that predominantly affects older male cats. Thoracic radiography may not be sensitive for the diagnosis of bronchiectasis in cats. Bronchiectasis in cats appears to be a sequela of chronic inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases, especially chronic bronchitis, neoplasia, and bronchopneumonia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:530–534)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, radiographic and histologic abnormalities, and concurrent diseases in cats with endogenous lipid pneumonia (EnLP) and to determine the pathologic importance of EnLP in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—24 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats in which EnLP was confirmed by histologic examination of necropsy specimens were reviewed. Information collected from the medical records included signalment, body weight, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic tests. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a radiologist; histologic specimens were reviewed by a pathologist.

Results—All cats had nonspecific clinical abnormalities, such as lethargy, anorexia, or weight loss; 16 had signs of respiratory tract disease. All cats had concurrent systemic diseases, and clinicopathologic abnormalities were reflective of these conditions. Nonspecific abnormalities were detected on thoracic radiographs from 9 of 11 cats. Most cats had macroscopic, multifocal, subpleural lesions; inflammatory infiltrates, cholesterol clefts, and multinucleated giant cells were common. Ten cats had an underlying obstructive pulmonary disease that was the likely cause of EnLP. Lesions of EnLP were not considered to be severe enough or extensive enough to be the cause of death in any of these cats.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—EnLP is an uncommon respiratory tract disorder of cats with no pathognomonic clinical, laboratory, or radiographic findings. Although EnLP was not the cause of death in any of these cats, results of the present study do suggest that EnLP may be a marker for potentially severe underlying obstructive pulmonary disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1437–1440)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, radiographic findings, histologic abnormalities, and predisposing factors or diseases in cats with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

29 cats in which PTE was confirmed at necropsy.

Procedure

Information on signalment, body weight, history, results of physical examination, results of CBC and serum biochemical analyses, whether PTE was suspected prior to death, type of indwelling venous catheter and duration of venous catheterization, results of thoracic radiography, and whether cats had any concurrent diseases was obtained from medical records.

Results

PTE was identified in cats of various ages (median, 8.7 years), weights (median, 4.1 kg [9 lb]), and breeds. The most common owner-reported problems included lethargy (17 cats), anorexia (14), weight loss (10), and difficulty breathing (8); physical abnormalities included lethargy (21), tachypnea or dyspnea (16), and dehydration (13). Clinicopathologic abnormalities reflected concurrent or underlying diseases. Common radiographic abnormalities included pulmonary vessel abnormalities (11), pleural effusion (8), and peripheral noncircumscribed consolidations (6). Underlying or predisposing conditions, including cardiac disease (12), neoplasia (10), corticosteroid administration (8), disseminated intravascular coagulation (5), protein-losing nephropathy (4) or enteropathy (4), immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (2), and sepsis (2) were identified in all cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results suggest that PTE can develop in cats of any age, sex, or breed. Because PTE is a serious, potentially life-threatening disease, it should be suspected in cats with thoracic radiographic changes suggestive of uneven distribution of blood flow between lung lobes, especially in cats that have predisposing factors or diseases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1650–1654)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare biodegradable magnesium phosphate cement (Mg-cement), calcium phosphate cement (Ca-cement), and no cement on bone repair, biocompatibility, and bone adhesive characteristics in vivo in horses.

Animals—8 clinically normal adulthorses.

Procedures—Triangular fragments (1-cm-long arms) were created by Y-shaped osteotomy of the second and fourth metatarsal bones (MTII and MTIV, respectively). Fragments were replaced in pairs to compare Mg-cement (MTII, n = 8; MTIV, 8) with Ca-cement (MTIV, 8) or with no cement (MTII, 8). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed for 7 weeks, at which time osteotomy sites were harvested for computed tomographic measurement of bone density and callus amount, 3-point mechanical testing, and histologic evaluation of healing pattern and biodegradation.

Results—All horses tolerated the procedure without clinical problems. Radiographically, Mg-cement secured fragments significantly closer to parent bone, compared with Ca-cement or no treatment. Callus amount and bone remodeling and healing were significantly greater with Mg-cement, compared with Ca-cement or no cement. Biomechanical testing results and callus density among treatments were not significantly different. Significantly greater woven bone was observed adjacent to the Mg-cement without foreign body reac-tion, compared with Ca-cement or no cement. The Mg-cement was not fully degraded and was still adhered to the fragment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both bone cements were biocompatible in horses, and Mg-cementmay assistfracture repair by osteogenesis and fragmentstabilization. Fur ther studies are warranted on other applications and to define degradation characteristics.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate and correlate patterns of subchondral bone density and articular cartilage degeneration (derived by use of gross, histologic, and computed tomographic [CT] examinations) in equine third metacarpal condyles with and without osteoarthritis.

Sample Population—8 metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints (n = 4 horses) without osteoarthritis and 6 osteoarthritis-affected MCP joints (4).

Procedures—Horses were euthanized. The third metacarpal condyles of the joints were examined grossly and via CT (3 slice images/condyle). For 6 condylar zones, mean bone density and pattern of density distribution were determined. Data for osteoarthritis-affected and control joints were compared. Histomorphometric point count analyses identified areas of bone density for comparison with CT density measurements.

Results—Osteoarthritis-affected condyles had heterogeneous subchondral bone with focal resorptive lesions and patterned sclerosis, whereas control condyles had symmetric bone density distribution. In osteoarthritis-affected condyles, bone density determined via gray scale image density analysis was greater (dorsal and medial pattern), compared with control condyles, and differed among zones because of resorption and sclerosis. With regard to bone density in osteoarthritis-affected condyles, histologic findings correlated with CT images, and bone lesions were significantly correlated with cartilage lesions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, heterogeneous distribution and greater subchondral bone density were characteristic of osteoarthritis-affected condyles, compared with control condyles. Subchondral bone lesions correlated with overlying cartilage lesions in osteoarthritis-affected MCP joints. Identification of CT image characteristics appears to predict the presence of a cartilage lesion in MCP joints of horses with osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate subchondral bone density patterns in elbow joints of clinically normal dogs by use of computed tomographic (CT) osteoabsorptiometry.

Sample Population—20 cadaver forelimbs from 10 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—Each elbow joint was imaged in parasagittal and transverse planes of 1.5-mm thickness. Slice data were converted to dipotassium phosphate equivalent density (PPED) values. Sagittal, parasagittal, and transverse medial coronoid process topographic maps were constructed. Defined zones were created for each of the 3 CT planes, and confluence and peak PPED values were determined.

Results—The lowest PPED value was 340 mg/ml (articular and subchondral confluence), and the highest was 1780 mg/ml (peak subchondral density). Detectable effects of joint laterality were not found in the confluence or peak PPED measurements or in the peak-to-confluence PPED ratio for all 3 CT planes. Significant differences were found among zones in all 3 planes for confluence and peak PPED measurements and between sagittal and transverse planes for peak-to-confluence PPED ratios. Subjectively, the pattern of density distribution among dogs was fairly consistent for the sagittal and parasagittal slices. Three specific patterns of density distribution were apparent on the transverse topographic maps of the medial coronoid process that corresponded to conformational differences.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of CT osteoabsorptiometry provides a repeatable technique that can be used to noninvasively examine bone density and the effects of stress acting on joints in vivo. Variability in density values for any of the CT planes was not identified among clinically normal dogs. (Am J Vet Ress 2002;63:1159–1166

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare biomechanical strength, interface quality, and effects of bone healing in bone-implant interfaces that were untreated or treated with calcium phosphate cement (Ca-cement), magnesium phosphate cement (Mg-cement), or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—4 screw holes were created (day 0) in each third metacarpal and third metatarsal bone of 6 horses. In each bone, a unicortical screw was placed in each hole following application of Ca-cement, Mg-cement, PMMA, or no treatment (24 screw holes/treatment). Screws were inserted to 2.82 N m torque. Horses were euthanized and bones were harvested at day 5 (16 screw holes/treatment) or day 182 (8 screw holes/treatment). Radiography, biomechanical testing, histomorphometry, and micro–computed tomography were performed to characterize the bone-implant interfaces.

Results—Use of Mg-cement increased the peak torque to failure at bone-implant interfaces, compared with the effects of no treatment and Ca-cement, and increased interface toughness, compared with the effects of no treatment, Ca-cement, and PMMA. Histologically, there was 44% less Ca-cement and 69% less Mg-cement at the interfaces at day 182, compared with amounts present at day 5. Within screw threads, Ca-cement increased mineral density, compared with PMMA or no treatment. In the bone adjacent to the screw, Mg-cement increased mineral density, compared with PMMA or no treatment. One untreated and 1 Ca-cement–treated screw backed out after day 5.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, Mg-cement promoted bone-implant bonding and adjacent bone osteogenesis, which may reduce the risk of screw loosening.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research