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  • Author or Editor: Valerie F. Samii x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of bronchiectasis in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—12 cats with histologic evidence of bronchiectasis.

Procedure—Information on signalment, body weight, clinical signs of respiratory disease, concurrent diseases, method by which lung tissue specimens were obtained (surgical biopsy or necropsy), and histopathologic findings was obtained by reviewing medical records from January 1987 to June 1999 for cats with confirmation of bronchiectasis by histologic examination. Available thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist.

Results—Bronchiectasis was most commonly identified in older male cats. Clinical signs referable to the lower portion of the respiratory tract were detected in only 5 cats but, when evident, were usually chronic (duration > 1 year). Radiographic pattern of bronchiectasis was cylindrical in 4 cats, and in 1 of these cats, a saccular pattern was also identified. For most cats, bronchiectasis was detected in a single lung lobe. Radiographic evidence of bronchiectasis was not detected in 2 cats. Concurrent respiratory diseases included chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis, neoplasia, bronchopneumonia, endogenous lipid pneumonia, and emphysema.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Bronchiectasis appears to be an uncommon respiratory tract disorder that predominantly affects older male cats. Thoracic radiography may not be sensitive for the diagnosis of bronchiectasis in cats. Bronchiectasis in cats appears to be a sequela of chronic inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases, especially chronic bronchitis, neoplasia, and bronchopneumonia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:530–534)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 20-month-old 455-kg (1,000-lb) pregnant Brown Swiss heifer was examined for a right mandibular swelling of 9 weeks' duration. The heifer had not been seen by a veterinarian prior to this evaluation, and the owner had not attempted any treatment. The swelling had rapidly tripled in size over the preceding week. The heifer was observed to salivate and to drop feed material when eating hay and grain. Mild weight loss had occurred after the swelling was noticed. At the time of the physical examination, the heifer was bright and alert. Asymmetry of the head was seen, especially swelling of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 10-month-old sexually intact male Shetland Sheepdog was evaluated by its primary veterinarian for a 1-day history of decreased appetite and mild lethargy. On physical examination, the dog was noted to have increased respiratory rate and effort with decreased lung sounds on the left side. The dog was not receiving heartworm preventative. The veterinarian performed survey radiography, made a diagnosis of pneumothorax, and performed bilateral thoracocentesis. The dog was referred to a surgical center for advanced imaging and continued care.

On evaluation at the referral center the following day, the owner stated that the dog seemed clinically improved, with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 7-month-old sexually intact female Boxer was evaluated for an intermittent, nonprogressive right pelvic limb lameness of 3 weeks' duration. The lameness may have been precipitated by a traumatic episode and was reported to be worse after prolonged rest. Physical examination revealed a consistent weight-bearing lameness of the right pelvic limb, with a repeatable pain response elicited during hyperflexion and extension of the stifle joint. A fluctuant swelling, presumed to be effusion, was palpated within the stifle joint. Cranial and caudal drawer signs were not elicited during examinations performed while the dog was awake or sedated. Results of valgus

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, radiographic and histologic abnormalities, and concurrent diseases in cats with endogenous lipid pneumonia (EnLP) and to determine the pathologic importance of EnLP in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—24 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats in which EnLP was confirmed by histologic examination of necropsy specimens were reviewed. Information collected from the medical records included signalment, body weight, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic tests. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a radiologist; histologic specimens were reviewed by a pathologist.

Results—All cats had nonspecific clinical abnormalities, such as lethargy, anorexia, or weight loss; 16 had signs of respiratory tract disease. All cats had concurrent systemic diseases, and clinicopathologic abnormalities were reflective of these conditions. Nonspecific abnormalities were detected on thoracic radiographs from 9 of 11 cats. Most cats had macroscopic, multifocal, subpleural lesions; inflammatory infiltrates, cholesterol clefts, and multinucleated giant cells were common. Ten cats had an underlying obstructive pulmonary disease that was the likely cause of EnLP. Lesions of EnLP were not considered to be severe enough or extensive enough to be the cause of death in any of these cats.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—EnLP is an uncommon respiratory tract disorder of cats with no pathognomonic clinical, laboratory, or radiographic findings. Although EnLP was not the cause of death in any of these cats, results of the present study do suggest that EnLP may be a marker for potentially severe underlying obstructive pulmonary disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1437–1440)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of thoracic radiography, cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histologic evaluation of biopsy and necropsy specimens in dogs with respiratory tract disease and to determine whether histologic evaluation provides important diagnostic information not attainable by the other methods.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—16 dogs.

Procedure—BAL fluid was classified as normal, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, mononuclear, mixed, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic. Radiographic abnormalities were classified as interstitial, bronchial, bronchointerstitial, or alveolar. Histologic lesions were classified as inflammatory, fibrotic, or neoplastic, and the predominant site of histologic lesions was classified as the alveoli, interstitium, or airway.

Results—The predominant radiographic location of lesions correlated with the histologic location in 8 dogs. Of 11 dogs with histologic evidence of inflammatory disease, 8 had inflammatory BAL fluid. Of the 2 dogs with histologic evidence of neoplasia, 1 had BAL fluid suggestive of neoplasia, and the other had BAL fluid consistent with septic purulent inflammation. Two dogs without any histologic abnormalities had mononuclear or nondiagnostic BAL fluid. Two dogs with histologic evidence of fibrosis had mononuclear or mixed inflammatory BAL fluid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that although thoracic radiography, cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid, and histologic evaluation of lung specimens are complementary, each method has limitations in regard to how well results reflect the underlying disease process in dogs with respiratory tract disease. Lung biopsy should be considered in cases where results of radiography and cytology are nondiagnostic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218: 1456–1461)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of pituitary tumors, detectable by means of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, in cats with insulin resistance suspected to have acromegaly or hyperadrenocorticism versus cats with well-controlled diabetes mellitus.

Design—Case series.

Animals—16 cats with insulin resistance that were also suspected to have acromegaly (n = 12) or pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (4) and 8 cats with well-controlled diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Computed tomography was performed on all 16 cats with insulin resistance and 2 cats in which diabetes mellitus was well-controlled. The remaining 6 cats in which diabetes mellitus was wellcontrolled underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Images were obtained before and immediately after IV administration of contrast medium.

Results—Computed tomography revealed a mass in the region of the pituitary gland in all 16 cats with insulin resistance. Maximum width of the masses ranged from 4.4 to 12.7 mm; maximum height ranged from 3.1 to 12.6 mm. Results of computed tomography performed on 2 cats with well-controlled diabetes and magnetic resonance imaging performed on the remaining 6 cats were considered normal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cats with insulin resistance suspected to have acromegaly or pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism are likely to have a pituitary mass detectable by means of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 1765–1768)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine ultrasonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in healthy small-, medium-, and large-breed dogs and evaluate the relationships of thyroid gland size and volume with body weight and body surface area (BSA).

Animals—72 dogs of small (6 Toy and 6 Miniature Poodles), medium (12 Beagles), and large breeds (12 Akitas and 36 Golden Retrievers).

Procedure—Each dog's thyroid gland was examined ultrasonographically with a 10- to 5-MHz multifrequency linear-array transducer. Size, shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity of thyroid lobes were evaluated on longitudinal and transverse images. Thyroid lobe volume was estimated by use of the equation for an ellipsoid (π/6 [length × height × width]).

Results—Thyroid lobes appeared fusiform or elliptical on longitudinal images and triangular or round to oval on transverse images. In most dogs, thyroid lobes were hyperechoic or isoechoic, compared with surrounding musculature, and had a homogeneous echogenic pattern. Mean length, width, height, and volume of thyroid lobes were significantly greater in Akitas and Golden Retrievers, compared with findings in Beagles or Poodles; mean length, width, and height were significantly greater in Beagles, compared with findings in Poodles. Total thyroid gland volume correlated with body weight (r = 0.73) and BSA (r = 0.74).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the dog breeds examined ultrasonographically, thyroid lobe size and volume were more variable than shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity. The correlation of thyroid gland volume with BSA suggests that size of the dog, rather than breed, should be considered when assessing thyroid glands ultrasonographically.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare biodegradable magnesium phosphate cement (Mg-cement), calcium phosphate cement (Ca-cement), and no cement on bone repair, biocompatibility, and bone adhesive characteristics in vivo in horses.

Animals—8 clinically normal adulthorses.

Procedures—Triangular fragments (1-cm-long arms) were created by Y-shaped osteotomy of the second and fourth metatarsal bones (MTII and MTIV, respectively). Fragments were replaced in pairs to compare Mg-cement (MTII, n = 8; MTIV, 8) with Ca-cement (MTIV, 8) or with no cement (MTII, 8). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed for 7 weeks, at which time osteotomy sites were harvested for computed tomographic measurement of bone density and callus amount, 3-point mechanical testing, and histologic evaluation of healing pattern and biodegradation.

Results—All horses tolerated the procedure without clinical problems. Radiographically, Mg-cement secured fragments significantly closer to parent bone, compared with Ca-cement or no treatment. Callus amount and bone remodeling and healing were significantly greater with Mg-cement, compared with Ca-cement or no cement. Biomechanical testing results and callus density among treatments were not significantly different. Significantly greater woven bone was observed adjacent to the Mg-cement without foreign body reac-tion, compared with Ca-cement or no cement. The Mg-cement was not fully degraded and was still adhered to the fragment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both bone cements were biocompatible in horses, and Mg-cementmay assistfracture repair by osteogenesis and fragmentstabilization. Fur ther studies are warranted on other applications and to define degradation characteristics.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare biomechanical strength, interface quality, and effects of bone healing in bone-implant interfaces that were untreated or treated with calcium phosphate cement (Ca-cement), magnesium phosphate cement (Mg-cement), or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—4 screw holes were created (day 0) in each third metacarpal and third metatarsal bone of 6 horses. In each bone, a unicortical screw was placed in each hole following application of Ca-cement, Mg-cement, PMMA, or no treatment (24 screw holes/treatment). Screws were inserted to 2.82 N m torque. Horses were euthanized and bones were harvested at day 5 (16 screw holes/treatment) or day 182 (8 screw holes/treatment). Radiography, biomechanical testing, histomorphometry, and micro–computed tomography were performed to characterize the bone-implant interfaces.

Results—Use of Mg-cement increased the peak torque to failure at bone-implant interfaces, compared with the effects of no treatment and Ca-cement, and increased interface toughness, compared with the effects of no treatment, Ca-cement, and PMMA. Histologically, there was 44% less Ca-cement and 69% less Mg-cement at the interfaces at day 182, compared with amounts present at day 5. Within screw threads, Ca-cement increased mineral density, compared with PMMA or no treatment. In the bone adjacent to the screw, Mg-cement increased mineral density, compared with PMMA or no treatment. One untreated and 1 Ca-cement–treated screw backed out after day 5.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, Mg-cement promoted bone-implant bonding and adjacent bone osteogenesis, which may reduce the risk of screw loosening.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research