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  • Author or Editor: Valerie A. Johnson x
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Abstract

The discovery that a population of cells derived from adult tissues had regenerative properties and could be expanded and utilized therapeutically led to an abundance of research into the safety and efficacy of these cells for a variety of disease processes. Derived from tissues of mesenchymal origin, these cells were called mesenchymal stem cells or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs were subsequently found to have a variety of anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and regenerative properties both in vitro and in vivo. These cells have been extensively studied and demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, and other pathologic conditions. Multiple veterinary clinical trials have been performed for diseases such as osteoarthritis, soft tissue, and tendon injuries in addition to other inflammatory and infectious conditions. Exotic animal species can pose additional challenges to the treatment of common medical conditions such as osteoarthritis due to varying metabolism and tolerance to medications as well as potential difficulty to medicate or utilize other common forms of therapy such as physical therapy, laser, massage, and acupuncture. Current knowledge of MSC use in exotic species is limited, but there is a large potential for benefit to a variety of species utilizing this novel therapeutic tool. This review includes a brief overview of mechanisms and known applications of this therapy as well as current and potential applications of MSCs in exotic animal species.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate and compare bone modeling and remodeling in fractured and non-fractured central tarsal bones (CTBs) of racing Greyhounds.

Sample—Paired cadaveric tarsi from 6 euthanized racing Greyhounds with right CTB fractures and 6 racing Greyhounds with other nontarsal injuries.

Procedures—CTBs were dissected and fractured CTBs were reconstructed. Central tarsal bones were evaluated through standard and nonscreen high-detail radiography, computed tomography, and histologic examination. The bone mineral density (BMD) was calculated adjacent to fracture planes and as a gradient on sagittal computed tomographic images. Sagittal and transverse plane sections of bone were obtained and submitted for subjective histologic assessment. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare findings.

Results—Fractured right CTBs had greater BMD in the dorsal and midbody regions of the sagittal plane sections than did nonfractured CTBs. The BMD ratios from bone adjacent to the dorsal slab fracture planes were not different between fractured and nonfractured right CTBs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings supported the existence of site-specific bone adaptation in CTBs of Greyhounds, with modeling and remodeling patterns that were unique to fractured right CTBs. The dorsal and midbody regions of fractured bones had greater BMD, and fractures occurred through these zones of increased BMD.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research